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K-CULTURAL HERITAGE

Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 2002.2.4
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    ☆ Daegeum, which was a standard instrument for tuning all musical instruments since the Goryeo Dynasty and was widely used before the Three Kingdoms Period, is a resonant instrument and also known as Jeotdae.

    The production process is to collect the raw bamboo from the root and cook it lightly on charcoal to remove the gin and tie it up so that the bamboo does not split and then marinate it in salt water for a month. Afterwards, dry enough in the shade, pierce holes, check the pitch, tie it in a strong string to prevent the instrument from bursting, and trim the shape to complete it. It is about 80cm long and has about 10 holes.
  • 2002.2.4
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    ☆ Songs used in Buddhist rituals are called Beompae, and dance is called Jakbeop or Jakbeop-mu.

    Beompae and Jakbeopmu in Incheon were first performed by King Taejo (1398) of the Joseon Dynasty when he moved the Tripitaka Koreana from Seonwonsa Temple in Ganghwa to Jicheonsa Temple and unceasing.

    From 1928, Beompae and Jakbeopmu including Bara-chum, Nabi-chum, Beopgo-chum were performed in Buddhist rituals in Yaksasa Temple, Myohyangsa Temple, and Haegwangsa Temple.

    Barachum is a dance that breaks down all the disturbances and praises Buddha's political laws. It is characterized by its strong, rugged, and thick lines containing the spirit of Incheon's sea, and its execution for the sake of patriots is different from other regions.

    In Guyangsa Temple, Buddhist Monk Neunghwa is dedicated to the guidance of victory by performing Hyeonchungjae every year.
  • 2002.2.4
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    ☆ Nabi-chum(Butterfly dance) is a dance that symbolizes Buddha's law. The dance, also known as Haetalmu(a dance of nirvana), is a dance that has influenced folk dance in combination with Nanani dance in Incheon, and is further sublimated to its artistic value.

    It is a dance for the discovery of mercy, the discovery of true hearts, and the discovery of legal treasures. In order to be taught by the Buddha and reach the law, it dances to the bands such as Hyanghwagae, Unsimge, Samjeogui, and Ogongyang, or to play with accompaniment such as hojeok, gong, or Samhyeon Yukgak.
  • 2009.2.5
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    ☆ Onggi is a Korean traditional craft, which has been developed since the Neolithic Age, using clay and natural ash to make earthenware at a high temperature of 1,200°C.

    Onggi is a clay-baked bowl, which has numerous fine holes and passes through air and moisture, but does not pass through water molecules with thick particles. So the onggi can breathe, and the contents can be kept fresh without leaking.

    This onggi-making technology developed in Ulsan in 1957 when Mr.Heo Deok-man from Yeongdeok-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do moved to Ulsan and settled in Gosan-ri, Onyang-eup to train the younger generation. Since then, the current onggi village has been formed.

    Oegosan Onggi Village is the largest onggi village in Korea. During the heyday of the 1960s, the nation's best craftsmen gathered to achieve prosperity and continued the tradition of traditional Korean onggi.

    The Ulju Oegosan Onggi Association, a functional holding organization, is a group of eight members who have been engaged in onggi production for at least 30 to 50 years, and has sufficient traditional onggi making techniques and techniques such as molding traditional onggi (feet) spinning, making and simulating traditional glaze, and traditional oysters.
  • 2005.2.7
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    ☆The blue and white porcelain is a white porcelain decorated with an oxidized cobalt that turns blue when it is reproduced at a high temperature of over 1200°C.
    The blue-and-white porcelain, which combines a white background and a blue pattern to represent a fresh and refined decorative beauty, began to be used in the decoration of white porcelain from the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) in China, and was also widely produced until Ming and Qing Dynasties.

    Due to this influence, blue and white porcelain began to be made in Korea around the mid-15th century in the early Joseon Dynasty, and until the late Joseon Dynasty, it was made mainly of official pottery installed in Gwangju, Gyeonggi-do.

    Sagijang Han Sang-gu, an intangible cultural asset of Gyeonggi-do, succeeded his grandfather Han Sang-gu and his father Han Ho-seok, who worked at the pottery testing laboratory of the Governor-General of Korea, and succeeded his three-generation family business, using traditional kilns to produce white porcelain while sticking to the white porcelain color and the blue painting techniques of the late Joseon Dynasty.

    His work is very elegant, and the manufacture of earth and the use of tools are considered to be the best reproduction of traditional blue and white porcelain.
  • 2005.2.7
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    ☆Sagi is often a relative concept of pottery that does not glaze, and refers comprehensively to glazed porcelain that has been made at temperatures above 1250°C.

    Sagi-jang means a master craftsman who makes porcelain, such as white porcelain, celadon, and buncheongsagi ware(a grayish-blue-powdered celadon).

    During the Joseon Dynasty, 360 Sagijangs belonged to Saongwon, which was in charge of royal meals, and were in charge of producing royal white porcelain at the official residence in Gwangju, Gyeonggi-do.

    White porcelain is represented by the use of white clay, which is low in iron oxide, and the reproduction at high temperatures by sampling a high-resolution glaze of feldspar series.

    Sagijang Seo Kwang-soo met with artisan Ji Soon-taek in the early 1960s and began to learn pottery techniques for 25 years.

    He started to run Handoyo in 1986 and has been working until now. He was designated as the 14th Master of the Republic of Korea in 2003 and the Gyeonggi-do Intangible Cultural Property (White porcelain) in 2005.

    He uses a traditional firewood klin to create a variety of white porcelain works, including moon jars, which are evaluated to have perfectly embodied the milky-white color of Joseon white porcelain.
  • 2002.2.7
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    ☆ Seokjang is a master craftsman who produces stone objects, and the statues, stone pagodas, and stone bridges that remain mostly in temples and palaces are their works. Various stone cultural assets from the Three Kingdoms Period to the present have been handed down, indicating that Korea's stone-making technology has reached a significant level.

    It is said to be 'Chinese bricks, Japanese trees, and Korean stones' when comparing the arts of the three Eastern countries. In Korea, where high-quality stone was produced in various places, stone art developed and Buddhism flourished, creating Buddhist sculptures that carved stones into the shape of Buddha. As a result, Seokgong(artisan) became an icon of Korean traditional culture, and Seokbul(Budda statue made of stone) and Seoktap(stone towers) were established as representative Korean cultural heritages.

    Park Chan-bong, the owner of the stone sculpture of an intangible cultural asset in Gyeonggi Province, is the artisan of this stone statue. He began his career in stone work in the late 1960s when he met with Kwon Jeong-hwan, a great teacher of Korean Buddhist sculpture, who visited the site in search of a good stone while working at a stone factory in Masan for seven years. During that time, he participated in the production of the Seawater Glow Award at Naksan Temple in Yangyang. Later, in 1981, the largest single stone in the country was built in Paju Bogwangsa Daebul, which is 9m high.

    He is a natural master of skill. Park Chan-soo, the holder of an important intangible cultural asset No. 108 wooden sculpture, was born into his family with outstanding qualities as an artist. Also, the beauty of the statue he created is widely regarded as one of the best works of a sculptor of the current stone Buddha statues. His works include the Three-story Stone Pagoda and Yaksa Buddha Statue at Donghwa Temple in Daegu, as well as more than 100 of the most representative Buddhist temples in Korea, including Tongdosa Temple in Yangsan, Donghwa Temple in Daegu, and Bomun Temple in Ganghwa.
  • 2005.2.7
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    ☆ Gold and silver are craftsmen who make beautiful ornaments by melting gold and silver. Since the Three Kingdoms Period, gold and silver craftsmanship was greatly developed, and during the Goryeo Dynasty, this technique was applied to bronze to leave outstanding artifacts.

    The anti-aircraft room made relatively large bowls, including pots, fresh furnaces, spoons and tobacco hacks, and women's props such as vandi, binyeo, norigae, bell, needle house and combing were mainly made in the workshop.

    Gold and silver work is the work of training gold and silver with a high heat of 950°C. When the silver cools and hardens, heat it again to soften it and hammer it. Once the necessary thickness of silver is made, the desired design is made. Silver is a bright gray color, but it can produce a variety of colors when treated with medicine. If you decorate it with gold foil, it gives off a whole new charm.

    Owner Lee Hyo-jun has been running a workshop in Hwajeon-dong, Goyang since 1988. He has been trained in traditional manufacturing techniques and has continued his golden craftsmanship. In some cases, only one metal is used, but in many cases alloys are used to enhance the mechanical properties of metal materials or to produce aesthetic effects. It is obtained from nature, such as grass leaves and leaves, which are commonly encountered around it.

    Many artifacts, including gold and silver, gold, silver, gold, gold, gold, gold, earrings, necklaces, binyeo, and backrests, are being made into cultural assets beyond simple ornaments.

    The holder is a craftsman who keeps the traditional techniques of Korea in the field of craftsmanship. In particular, the traditional patterns are expressed in great detail in his works, and the characteristics of the patterns are well illustrated. For this reason, he has been praised for his excellent portrayal of the most Korean style and sentiment in gold and silver.
  • 2005.2.7
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    ☆According to a local legend in Gwacheon, when King Jeongjo traveled to Hyoryungwon, the tomb of the unjustly deceased Crown Prince Sado, the villagers of Gwacheon selected a young boy and dressed him up as a woman, and performed dance and tricks on the man's shoulders, which is mudong nori, to praise his filial behavior and recite the royal road.

    Gwacheon Dapgyo nori(bridge crossing game) is combined with mudong nori and dapgyo nori, which used to go back and forth on the local bridge wishing for a good harvest and longevity on the fifteenth of lunar January and the first full moon of the lunar year.

    Although the tradition was lost after passing through Japanese colonial era, the entire scenario was restored in 1981 by the Gwacheon Folk Preservation Society, which was participated by Lee Yoon-young and the residents of Gwacheon. In 1982, it was awarded the President's Award at the 23rd National Folk Arts Competition, establishing itself as a representative folk game of Gwacheon.


    Since then, Mudong nori and nongak have been reinforced in the restored original form, and other folk games in Gwacheon, including Jisinbarpgi, Dangnamu Gosa, Seonsori Nori, Umul Gosa, and Madang Nori, have been gradually changed to various contents, reaching the present day.

    A nongak band consisting of Hojeok, Kkwaenggwari, Jing, Jegeum, Janggu, Buk, Sogo, followed by japsaek and mudong, led by Gilajabi(leader).

    The play will be followed in the order of Dangnamu Gosa, Jisinbarpgi and Umul gosa, Dari gosa, Madangnori, Seonsori Dapgyo, Mudong Dapgyo Nori, and Wrapping and Wishing.

    Gwacheon Mudong Dapgyo Nori was joined by Oh Eun-myeong, a professional Korean traditional musician, and the contents and composition of Gwacheon Mudong Dapgyo Nori became rich. In 2010, Oh Eun-myung was designated as the holder of the Sangsoe, the leader of the troupe, and she is working hard to pass on the Gwacheon Mudong Dapgyo Nori.
  • 1969.2.11
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    There is no exact record of the origin of it, but it is assumed that the shape of nearby Mountains resembles two bulls were competing.On the occasion of the event, the village is divided into two sides: those living in the east section of the village and those living in the west. The winning side will reportedly enjoy better harvest in the year. The play used to be performed around the full moon period of January 15 on the lunar calendar; now, however, it is performed along with a tug-of-war competition during the March 1 Cultural Festival, held to commemorate the independence movement carried out with the locals in Yeongsan, which played a leading role during the colonial period.

    The event is said to have started from the wish to stop the evil power of the two nearby mountains, i.e., Yeongchuksan and Jagyaksan (also called Hambaksan), which look like two bulls confronting each other. With the approach of January 15 on the lunar calendar, villagers flock to a nearby mountain and fell a 10m-tall tree. A pyramid-shaped structure is made using a log and straw rope that people will carry on their shoulder, with the leader of the team, together with two lieutenants, standing at the top of it, giving command to fight the opponent. A wooden carved bull head or a mask is put on the top of the structure. Prior to the commencement of the battle, farmers’ music is played to create a delightful atmosphere. The team that makes the opponent’s bull head fall to the ground wins. Yeongsan Soemeori Daegi is a local folk play performed to pray for good harvest.☆
  • 1969.2.11
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    For the event, the village is divided into two teams: the East Team (symbolizing males) and the West Team (symbolizing females). The village will reportedly enjoy better harvest in the year if the West Team (females giving birth to children) wins.

    The tug-of-war is also called galjeon, which is associated with the use of arrowroot vines for the rope. The event had been handed down as a rite held in farming provinces south of the central area of the country. At present, it is performed as part of the March 1 Cultural Festival.

    The rope used for the event is 40 - 50m long. The diameter of the main section of the straw rope made in a year comes to larger than 1m; if you sit down on it, your legs do not touch the ground. Many thinner straw ropes are tied to the main section for people to tug. Each team makes its own rope, with the two ropes connected right before the event. The leaders of the two teams stand on the main section of the rope to give the necessary signals. Farmers’ music is played joyously to cheer for the people.

    The event is a rite held to pray for good harvest and build a spirit of collaboration among villagers based on the belief associated with dragon and snake.☆
  • 1987.2.12
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    ☆Gyemyeong-ju is the name of a liquor named after it, "If you make it in the evening, it will be cooked until the cockcrow the next morning." for "gyemyeong" means "cockcrow" in Korean.

    It is believed that it has been made since the 1500s for records about the method of making 'Gyemyeongju' liquor.

    It was made when it was urgently needed to make a drink.

    Gyemyungju is basically based on the general yeast-making method, and there are two recipes; putting malt, syrup, and candy, or using a yeast-based formula. And it can be assumed to have been created by the addition of various medicinal ingredients for a special purpose of the liquor.

    The existing Gyemyungju, in the form of Gayangju, has been handed down to the family of Gyeolseong Jang in Namyangju. Namyangju Gyemyeongju was originally a native liquor of Gangdong-gun, Pyeongannam-do Province, and after the mother of Jang Ki-hang, the 11th eldest son of the family of Gyeolseong Jang family, took refuge with only a flagpole during the war, and she passed on the law to Choi Ok-geun (57), his daughter-in law, who had kept for generations.

    Since then, Mrs. Choi was designated as Gyeonggi-do Intangible Cultural Property No. 1 in 1987 and was designated as a master of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in April 1996.

    Gyemyeongju's unique production process is not to use glutinous rice or nonglutinous rice, but to use mixed grains such as corn and sorghum, which were the staple foods of the Old Goguryeo people, and to cook them secretly.

    Unlike ordinary rice wine, which makes from steamed rice, Gyemyeongju uses grain syrup and malt to make porridge and soak yeast in grain syrup for six to seven days. In the meantime, mix corn and water properly and soak them for 10 to 12 hours and grind them in a millston, pour water three times, add malt, and then simmer it in a cauldron and filter it out.

    After cooling down the raw materials of alcohol filtered out of sacks, mixing the grain syrup with yeast and pine needles, put them in a pot, ferment them in a room of 25 to 28 degrees Celsius for eight days, and then filter them out, producing a yellow and clear alcohol content of 11 percent.

    [ How to Make Gyemyeongju]

    1 Soak the yeast powder in the grain syrup.

    2 Soak sorghum and corn in cold water.

    3 Grind soaked sorghum and corn in millstone and put them in cauldron.
    Pour malt and water and use the porridge over a low heat to make it sugar.

    4 Put the cold porridge in a sack and squeeze it.

    5 Mix cold porridge with yeast and pine needles soaked in grain syrup.

    Mix it well, put it in a pot, seal it, ferment it at about 28 degrees, drain,

    and Gyemyeongju of about 11 degrees is completed.
  • 1980.2.12
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    ☆Nongak is the music played by farmers during work time and play percussion instruments such as Kkwaenggwari, Jing, Janggu, and Buk.

    According to the purpose of performing nongak, the types can be divided into Dangsan-gut, Madang Barpgi, Geolip-gut, Dure-gut, Pan-gut, Giuje-gut, and Bae-gut.

    With regional classifications, they are divided into Gyeonggi Nongak, Yeongdong Nongak, Honam Udo Nongak, Honam Jwado Nongak, Gyeongnam Nongak, and Gyeongbuk Nongak.

    Busan Nongak, a type of Gyeongnam Nongak, is mainly composed of Geollip-gut, which takes turns playing nongak at the beginning of the first lunar month, and praying for blessings. Compared to other nongak, it has a lot of gutgeori rhythms and dances in four beats slower than other nongak. It has excellent functions of spinning sangmo and beoggu nori, and the four buks are matched and the technique of holding the buk is excellent.

    Nongak, which has been connected with the history of the people, is a long folk belief of Korean people, and should be preserved as a traditional folk art that combines dance and rhythm.

    Currently, the Busan Nongak Preservation Association is striving to pass down and distribute the music.
  • 2016.2.12
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    ☆Gukhwa-ju(chrysanthemum wine) is a valuable intangible cultural asset that is also recorded in literature which was manufactured in succession at Dongchundang House of Eunjin Song Clan in Daejeon and used for guest reception.

    Kim Jeong-soon was recognized as the holder of the function for the preservation and transmission of making gukhwa-hu related to the manufacture and training successors.
  • 1998.2.12
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    ☆Pansori is a stage art consisting of a singer, a drummer, and spectators. The one who sings makes sounds, lines(Aniri), and gestures(Balim), and the one who plays Buk according to the tune of the one leads to an exciting atmosphere.

    Pansori is divided into Dongpyeon-je in the northeastern part of Jeolla-do and Seopyeon-je in the southwestern part of Jeolla-do, and Junggo-je in Gyeonggi-do and Chungcheong-do according to its regional characteristics and genealogy.

    Pansori has originally twelve batangs(songs) but almost disappeared during the Japanese Colonial Period. Only five batangs of Chunhyangga, Simcheongga, Heungbooga, Sugungga, and Jeokbyeokga remain until now.

    Simcheongga is one of the five pansori madangs, and Simcheong, the daughter of Simbongsa, fell into Indangsu to open her fathers eyes, but with the help of the Great Jade Emperor, she was reborn as the empress and became a filial daughter by opening her father's eyes.

    Shim Chung-ga's artistic owner, Lee Im-rye, was born and raised in a family that played Korean traditional music, so she was able to develop her musical talent early on and took over the typical sound of Gangsanje, which is a type of Seopyeonje.