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K-CULTURAL HERITAGE

Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 1974.5.28
    designated date
    Pansori is a stage art consisting of a singer, a drummer, and a pair of spectators. The one who sings makes sounds, lines, and gestures, and the one who plays drums according to the tune of the one who makes the sound leads to an exciting atmosphere.

    Pansori is divided into East Pyeonje in the northeastern part of Jeolla-do, West Pyeonje in the southwestern part of Jeolla-do, and middle and high schools in Gyeonggi-do and Chungcheong-do according to its regional characteristics and genealogy. Originally, it was twelve yards, but almost disappeared during the Japanese Colonial Period. Only five yards of Chunhyangga, Simcheongga, Heungboga, Sugungga, and Jeokbyeokga remain until now. The rhythm used in pansori has several rhythms, such as the slow rhythm Jinyang, the average speed Jungmori, the faster Jungjungmori, the faster Jajinmori, and the very fast Hwimori, which are written according to the tense and leisurely dramatic situations shown in the editorial.

    Namdo Pansori is a pansori that suits our people well and belongs to Seopyeonje. Han Ae-soon, the current holder of Namdo Pansori entertainment, is said to be good at using the traditional features of Seopyeonje, which is light in vocalization, long in tail of sound, and elaborately woven.
  • 2010.5.28
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    Buddhist paintings are an important area of Buddhist art that is subject to worship at Buddhist temples along with Buddhist statues. After the introduction of Buddhism, Korean Buddhist paintings developed greatly in the form of murals and tangs. Especially during the Goryeo Dynasty, they were recognized as the highest-quality works in East Asia. A Tang painter is a person who paints Buddhist worldviews, such as portraits or scriptures of Buddha or Bodhisattva, which are common in temples. Along with the detailed description, the tanghwa is called a task that is almost a performance as it also requires careful attention to the use of colors.

    Lee Sam-yeol was born in 1945 and was taught Korean Buddhist paintings by Kim Il-seop. He participated in the construction of Dancheong and Buddhist paintings in major temples across the country, including Geumjeongsa Temple in Busan, Gimje Geumsan Temple, Gyeongju Bulguksa Temple, Seoul Haknimsa Temple, Busan Seonamsa Temple, Yesan Sudeoksa Temple, Jeongeup Naejangsa Temple, Gochang Seonunsa Temple, Muju Anguk Temple, and Wanju Bongseo Temple.

    Lee Sam-yeol faithfully inherits and creates the sketches from Kim Il-seop, and his character's expressive ability is outstanding, and his overall work is excellent, including writing and coloring.
  • 2010.5.28
    designated date
    Didilbanga Actuemak Nori has been handed down as a comprehensive folk play, accompanied by dance, music, and ritual ceremonies to pray for the well-being of the village and prevent the disease from spreading more than 250 years ago.
  • 1992.5.29
    designated date
    The main vocal was a labor song, which was sung when fishermen made anchor ropes used in the sea. The contents include the sounds of wood, jaws, rope, screeching, chirping, chirping, sorghum, and sarira. Wooden bells are the sounds of cutting down trees, and jaws are the sounds of tight ropes. The stringing sound is sung when a string of three strands is twisted, which is not thick, while the wiggle sound is sung in the process of keeping the line firm and horizontal. The reindeer and chaiing sound is sung when three thin lines are made into one thick string, and when a thick twisted string is rolled, the female voice and sarira sound are sung.
  • 1988.5.30
    designated date
    Nongak is the music played by farmers when they squeeze their dure and play percussion instruments such as kkwaenggwari, Jing, Janggu, and drum. It is also called Gut, Maegu, Pungjang, Geumgo, Chigun, etc.

    Wooksu Nongak is a nongak that originated from the Cheonwang-Baegi Gut, which was held every year at Dongjedang Hall in this village.

    The process of nongak is performed as a wayfarer, Cheonwangdaejigut, which is performed in front of Dongjedang, and a round-demi in which nongak performers dance to the rhythm of Sangsoe in the original form, a yard play in which gongs, drums, janggu, and Beopgojabi players show their tricks in groups, and a Sangsoeobuk-gu, and Z-dong, and quickly turns the performers who sit in the shape.

    Wooksu nongak has a characteristic of Yeongnam nongak, which has a relatively fast-spaced and low-spinning melody, and especially the rhythm of Gilgut is unique. In addition, it is unique in that out-of-the-box farming is a rare form of play in the southern part of Gyeongsang-do.
  • 1990.5.30
    designated date
    Jeju Island does not make alcohol from rice because rice paddies are very precious islands, and the ingredients for rice are "Joe," a field grain.

    Jeju Island's history of making rice wine with rice is as old as the cultivation of rice.

    In Jeju Island, rice wine and rice wine were produced in narrow rice fields, and the rice wine was called ome technology. Ome technique originated from "Omegi," the name of the rice cake that makes takju, which means alcohol made from this rice cake.

    It takes several steps to make omega technology. Usually, the 40-year-olds put down their spoons, which cost 12 sacks of rice and 10 sacks of wheat and barley to make yeast.

    Alcohol can be borrowed at any time, but it is better to make fresh rice after Sanggang (October 24 in the lunar calendar) during the 24 solar terms. Ome Technology, a town folk village, is handed down by Kim Eul-jeong, a skilled craftsman.
  • 2008.5.30
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    Gayageum is also known as Gayageum, a traditional Korean musical instrument produced and distributed since the Three Kingdoms Period. Twelve strings of silk twisted together with a gilt-bronze resonator board are tied vertically for each line.

    It is used throughout Korean music, including julpungryu, Gagok accompaniment, Gayageum Sanjo, and Gayageum Byeongchang. Fortunately, there is a master craftsman who has only been working on the production of Gayageum in our city's jurisdiction, so Gayageum production is designated as an intangible cultural asset of our city in order to preserve and transfer traditional culture.
  • 1982.6.1
    designated date
    Daemokjang refers to a master carpenter in charge of the complete process of building a traditional Korean wood building (such as a royal palace, temple or military facility), including the design, trimming of wood, and overall supervision. The name Daemokjang was coined to distinguish it from Somokjang (Wood Furniture Making).

    Daemokjang controlled the roof tile maker, porters, masons, the plasterer, and the dancheong (ornamental painting) painter. Wood architecture developed early in the country. Olden-day royal palace and temple buildings were all built of wood.

    Carpenters were hired as government officials. According to records, 70 officials of the Unified Silla Period (668 – 935) were carpenters, and the tradition continued during the Goryeo (877 – 1394) and Joseon (1392 – 1910) Periods. During the Joseon Period, 60 carpenters were officials belonging to Seongonggam (Office of Civil Engineering and Building Repair). Records of Renovation of Sungnyemun Gate (also called Namdaemun) written during the reign of King Sejong (r. 1418 – 1450) tell us that Daemokjang was a Grade-5 official. The tradition of hiring carpenters as government officials was stopped toward the late Joseon Period.

    Today, the skills of Daemokjang are used only in limited areas, such as building a temple or private house.

    The skills of Daemokjang are strictly handed down. Among carpenters, Daemokjang is regarded as the person with absolute authority, and is instrumental in the adoption of new skills.
  • 1982.6.1
    designated date
    When holding juldarigi (tug-of-war) in Gijisi-ri, Songak-eup, Dangjin-si, Chungcheongnam-do, the village was divided into two teams, those living close to the shore and the others. It was said that the village would see a good year for the crop when the “close-to-the-shore” group won the contest. The play was performed after Dangje (village ritual) in early March of a leap year in the lunar calendar.

    There are two theories about the origin of the tug-of-war held in this village. One says that the village looks like a fairy weaving and the movement of pulling a cloth being woven at both sides led to the tug-of-war, the other tells us that the local topography resembles a centipede and so villagers engaged in the tug-of-war using a rope that also looked like a centipede.

    The straw rope used in the tug-of-war is 50 – 60m long. The diameter of the main section of the rope, which is made each year, comes to more than 1m and if you sat down on it, your legs would not touch the ground. Many thinner straw ropes are tied to the main section for people to tug.

    The leaders of the two teams would stand on the main section of the rope to give necessary signals while farmers’ music is played joyously to cheer on the participants. After the contest is over, people take away pieces cut off the rope, as it is said that the water heated with a rope piece is a cure for backache or infertility.

    The event is a rite held to pray for a good harvest and to build a spirit of collaboration among the villagers.
  • 1983.6.1
    designated date
    Taekkyeon is a martial art for self-defense featuring soft movements. During the Joseon Period, ordinary people came to practice it.

    The martial art is practiced in three categories: 1. Practicing alone, 2. Defending yourself, and 3. Competition. It is characterized by concordance of movements of the body and the muscles, fluid and dynamic movements, dance-like rhythms, emphasis on defense rather than attack, and frequent use of footwork.

    Taekkyeon features fluid and natural body movements, and thus can be practiced both for healthy exercise and as a sport.
  • 1983.6.1
    designated date
    Yugijang refers to a brassware making skill, or to an artisan with such a skill.

    On the Korean Peninsula, brassware was first made during the Bronze Age. During the Silla Period (57 BC – AD 935), there was a government agency in charge of production of brassware. The skill continued to develop, and thin brassware with beautiful luster came to be made during the Goryeo Period (877 – 1394).

    Then, there was a lull in development, but brassware enjoyed popularity again by the 18th Century. Anseong, Gyeonggi-do was known for the production of good-quality brassware items, and noble class people placed orders for custom-made brassware goods with producers there.

    Brass may be any one of a broad range of copper alloys, usually with zinc as the main additive. Brassware displays a yellowish color with subdued luster. Cupronickel ware displays a white color.

    There are three types of yugi (brassware), depending on the production technique used. To make bangjja yugi, ingots are first made with melted brass and then people strike them with hammers. Examples of articles made with this method are jing (large gong), kkwaenggwari (small gong), food bowls and wash basins. Jumul yugi (forged brassware) is made by using molds.

    The term Anseong Machum was coined to refer to an object or item that was custom-made for a particular situation, as brassware made in Anseong satisfied specific needs of customers. Semi bangjja yugi refers to brassware made using both bangjja and forging methods. Yugijang is the country’s leading traditional metal artifact-making skill with wide practical applications.
  • 1983.6.1
    designated date
    Ipsajang refers to the skill of inlaying ornamental silver or gold string into a groove made on a metal surface, or to an artisan with such a skill.

    Objects made with this skill were among the relics unearthed from the sites of Lerang dating from the 1st or 2nd Century BC and from Silla (circa 57 BC – 935) tombs.

    There are two ways of making this ornamentation. One was a method which started during the Goryeo Period (877 – 1394) of inlaying ornamental silver or gold string into a groove made with a chisel on a metal surface. The other, which started toward the mid-Joseon Period (1392 – 1910), was to make a figure on a metal surface using a chisel, and fit thin silver/gold pieces into the space by striking with a hammer. The patterns thus made were chiefly apricot, orchid, chrysanthemum, bamboo, crane, deer, bat, tiger, and pine.
  • 1983.6.1
    designated date
    It is presumed that this mask play stemmed from the puppet play performed by itinerant troupes called Namsadang in Anseong.

    The face-shaped mask is put on a foot stretched out by a person inside a covered space sized 2m by 1m and the puppet’s arms are moved with a string (now with bamboo sticks) attached to them. The person inside the space sings, dances, and cracks gags.

    Another clown outside the covered space moves in harmony with the movements made by the masked foot to the accompaniment of music played on piri (flute), jeotdae (bamboo flute), haegeum (two-stringed fiddle), buk (drum), and janggo (hourglass-shaped drum).

    Baltal is a puppet show mixed with a mask play. The gags cracked by the clown included acrimonious satires about what was happening in society and expressed the delights and sorrows experienced by commoners who were forced to live hard lives.
  • 2018.6.1
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    The village ritual in Bucheon, Siheung, Ansan, Osan, Hwaseong, Suwon, Gwangju, and Anseong, which are located in the southern part of Gyeonggi-do, is called Gyeonggi-gut. This village ritual is performed by the hereditary succession of martial arts, which are called hwarangi or mountain, and women are called miji. The dance of Gyeonggi-do Danggut, which is centered on Hwarangipae or Sani-eul in southern Gyeonggi-do, means the dance that was performed at Gutpan in a broad sense, and in a narrow sense refers to the Gyeonggi-do Danggut Sinawi dance, which is an art of performance, leaving Gutpan. In addition, the accompaniment of the dance is called Gyeonggi-do Danggutsi Nawi Dance because it is so-called Gyeonggi-do Sinawi Dance, which is difficult for experts to understand, such as Seopchae, Banseolumumjangdan, Onigutgeori, Jinsojangdan, Olimchae, Sangjimachi, Garaejo, Valkudre, and Bujeongnoridan. Gyeonggi-do Danggut Sinawi Dance, which is stylized on stage against the backdrop of shamanistic tradition in Gyeonggi-do, includes "Boojeong Nori Dance," "Turberim Dance," "Jinchigi Dance," "Sneakchae Dance," "Olimchae Dance," "Jeseok Dance," and "Dosalpuri Dance," and Maeheon Kim Sook-ja, who is at the center of the dance.



    Maeheon Kim Sook-ja (梅軒 19 19: 1926-1991) learned the dance music contained in shamanism from her father Kim Deok-soon, a native of Jaeincheong, Hwaseong, and the entire shamanism from her mother, Jung Gwi-seong. The characteristic element of Kim Sook-ja's Gyeonggi-do Danggut Sinawi Dance, a former hereditary dancer, is that she recreated it as a traditional dance by developing the dance of ritual dance that Hwareang and Moohyeo used to perform at Gyeonggi-do Danggut, which has been handed down in Gyeonggi-do Province. Therefore, Kim Sook-ja's dances were originally performed at Dodang Gutpan in Gyeonggi Province, but they are representative shamanistic dances that were staged and entertainmentized in the process of re-creation and transmission.

    The Gyeonggi-do Danggut Sinawi Dance and Gyeonggi-do folk dance, which were passed down to Kim Sook-ja from Kim Deok-soon, father of Maeheon Kim Sook-ja ( 19 1926-1991), and his mother Jeong Gwi-seong, are now preserved through his disciple Lee Jung-hee, and are handed down to his disciple Hansumun.
  • 1993.6.4
    designated date
    It is a folk liquor made for use on Cheongmyeongil (around April 5 and 6 in the Gregorian calendar), one of the 24 solar terms of the year. During the Joseon Dynasty, visitors to and from Chungju, a port for sailing boats in the upper reaches of the Han River, began to enjoy drinking and served as guests for the old aristocrats as well as as as a favorite drink for holidays and ancestral rites.

    It is produced by fermenting at low temperatures for about 100 days using only yeast made from pure glutinous rice and whole wheat of traditional species.

    Chungju Cheongmyeongju has a high alcohol concentration and excellent color, aroma and taste. It is currently being handed down by functional holder Kim Young-ki.