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K-CULTURAL HERITAGE

Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 1996.10.14
    designated date
    A tanghwa refers to a Buddhist painting (佛畵: a painting drawn in a frame or scroll form by drawing on a piece of cloth or paper to easily express and widely convey the contents of Buddhism), and the person who has the technique of painting such a tang is called a tanghwajang.

    Tanghua was painted for use in Buddhist events because it was much easier to make than other Buddhist paintings and could be moved without being fixed.

    It is assumed that the tanghwa of our country began during the Three Kingdoms Period with the introduction of Buddhism. This can be seen from the records of "The History of the Three Kingdoms" that Silla painter Solger painted an old pine tree on the wall of Hwangnyongsa Temple.

    In addition, the stone tangerines of Seokguram, which were made during the reign of King Hyegong of the Unified Silla Dynasty (r. 765-780), are believed to have been widely painted during the Unified Silla Period, starting with the Three Kingdoms Period.

    In the late Joseon Dynasty, many of the temples were painted as they were renovated.
  • 2016.10.14
    Specified date
    Taekwondo is a modern martial art that is the birthplace of Korea, and is the national flag of Korea. It is a martial art that aims to effectively subdue the opponent by using hands, feet and other body parts centered on Bilchagi.
  • 2016.10.14
    designated date
    Muju Anseong Nakhwa Nori refers to a traditional Korean folk game in which people hang a long line of Nakhwabong Peak with charcoal powder, sageum fly, salt, and dried mugwort on the fifteenth of lunar January, before rice planting, and on the fifteenth of July, and light it up to enjoy the shape of fireworks and the sound of explosion. This is also known as 'Julbulnori,' or 'Julbulbul.'

    1. Fireworks and Nakhwa games

    There are earthenware, firecrackers, lotus lanterns, volcanic belt, julbul-nakhwa nori, buldan-nakhwa nori, egg fire, torchlight play, and ddakchong nori.

    2. Regional Distribution of Nakhwa Nori

    "Yeondeung" in Bukcheong, Hamgyeongnam-do, "Yeondeung" in Jeongju, Pyeonganbuk-do, "Nakhwa Nori" in Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do, "Fireworks" in Cheongju, Chungcheongbuk-do, "Yeondeung and Gwaneung" in Chungju, Chungju, North Chungcheong-do, "Yeonyu-Julbulnori" in Andong, North Gyeongsang Province, and "Yi-Sujeong Nakhwa Nori-dong in Haman Province" in South Gyeongsang Province, South Gyeongsang Province, South Gyeongsang Province, South Gyeongsang Province..

    3. Characteristics of Nakhwa Nori in Korea

    First, our country's Nakhwa Nori is distributed nationwide. Second, the performance period is held on the first day of the fourth lunar month and on the fifteenth day of the first full moon of the first lunar month. Third, the venue for the performance takes place in the village. Fourth, the organizer of the performance is the villagers. Fifth, the materials used for making are charcoal, hanji, and string. Sagum fly, mugwort, salt and sulfur are added. Sixth, according to the contents of the performance, there are various types of firework, such as firework, firework, lantern hanging from a pole and lighting it up.
  • 1984.10.15
    designated date
    Records tell us that on the Korean Peninsula, embroidery started during the Three Kingdoms Period (circa 57 BC – 668 AD). During the Goryeo Period (877 – 1394), the practice became so widespread that it was adopted even on the clothes of ordinary people. As a result, embroidery was prohibited several times. With the start of the Joseon Period (1392 – 1910), the practice developed further and was divided into royal embroidery, exquisitely made by skilled court ladies, and the others. Looking at how a piece of embroidery is made, first the cloth to work on is fixed onto a frame and a rough sketch is made on it. Upon the completion of embroidery, the frame is shaken to remove dust. Then, a thin layer of paste is applied to the back of the embroidered surface so as not to let the stitches scatter. The embroidered piece is then placed in the shade to dry and removed from the frame. Embroidery has developed as a reflection of Koreans’ living environment, customs, and beliefs.
  • 1982.10.15
    Designated date
    Sodongpae is a type of dure that is organized for collaboration in the Namdo area. Dure can be divided into a large group of adults over the age of 20 and a small group of young people before the age of 20. Sodongpae mainly engaged in joint labor such as grass-beating and gimmaegi, which originated from the daily life of nongak, dance, and singing in order to forget the hardships and boredom of labor and increase the efficiency of work.

    Sodongpae nori is played throughout the day from morning to evening. It leads to a breakfast meeting, a group meeting to hurry to work, a road to work, and the sound of rice paddies when they make rice paddies. When they meet Daedongpae on their way back from work, a scorpion game is held to ask for greetings, and when they meet other teams, they play a game of game, but regardless of the outcome, they play Nongak and harmonize with each other. The folk song is a cheerful melody, and depending on the movement and play, it is sung in various ways, including Nonmaegi song, kerosene taryeong, Horyeong taryeong, Gaegori taryeong, and Bangae taryeong.

    Hyeoncheon Sodongpae nori is a comprehensive folk art that combines labor, singing, and dancing, and the scorpion-raising of greetings contains a tradition of rural society that values manners toward adults.
  • 2001.10.17
    designated date
    Gudeok Mangkeuttajigi is a traditional folk song that includes the work of building a fence or pillar using a tool called Mangkeul to build a large building or house, and the song of labor (mangkeum) sung by a singer in the process.

    Manggae are made by tying four to five handles or strings of wide stones or shits, and Busan uses wide stones, unlike other places. When the workers pull the rope up and let it go, the manga hits the ground and becomes more and more solid. As such, ironing the ground with a manga to strengthen the site is called a manga, and the sound called to relieve the fatigue of labor and to keep in step with the efficiency of work is called a manga.

    The Gudeok Mangkeot Dajigi, which runs around Daesin-dong, Seo-gu, is of great folk value as it still has the old image of the work process of ironing the site with mangkae and mangkae, which are tools for ironing the site in traditional architecture, and the sound of mangkkeum is also valuable as a labor song in Busan.
  • 2013.10.17
    designated date
    It is a rare sound related to fishing labor that has been consistently called in parts of eastern Jeju.

    The value of transmission as an intangible cultural asset with a close connection between function and song is very high in that it was naturally acquired and sung at the site of transmission.

    Two songs (the sound of the four-spirited, the sound of a hairtail)
  • 2000.10.18
    Designated date.
    Yi Man-hui, a Yeonan clan member, had a close relationship with the royal family, with her ancestors attending "Jidadai" (a royal inspector). From his mother, the eldest daughter-in-law, to the wedding exhibition, he learned how to make traditional rice cakes and other traditional foods.

    He has lived in Daejeon for more than 40 years since his marriage to Gwangsan Kim, and has continued the tradition of wedding food culture by making rice cakes and other food. Among his food manufacturing functions, various types of rice cakes, such as white rice cake, honey rice cake, and Shingum vinegar rice cake, were one of the most representative rice cakes in the Joseon Dynasty, which were referred to as white rice cake, wheat cake, and shingam vinegar rice cake.

    According to the records of the Joseon Dynasty's royal court, the white rice is made of spicy rice, glutinous rice, stone mushrooms, pine nuts, chestnuts, jujube, chestnuts, pine nuts, and honey, and the sweet and sour chocolates are made of spicy rice, glutinous rice, vinegar powder, jujube, pine nuts, and honey. These ingredients are decorated with jujube, chestnut, and pine nuts on top of sesame oil-based hanji, and Lee Man-hee's adaptation inherits the Joseon royal family's recipe for rice cakes.

    Baekpyeon, etc. was originally used in royal banquets combined with the development of tea culture. It was a typical rice cake made of spicy rice used with malcha in the Goryeo Dynasty and green tea in the Joseon Dynasty. It was a must-have tribute to Jin Chan-yeon of the Joseon Dynasty, combined with the tea ceremony, the essence of Yeonhui.
  • 2000.10.18
    Specified date
    Dancheong refers to the coloring of dried vegetables and crafts, which are mineral pigments. Dancheong is advantageous for the preservation of timber, and it can cover the crude parts of wood, and it helps to make the building magnificent. Dancheong is a branch of Buddhist art that has been a long history of Korean history as an expression of Buddhist doctrines and ideologies.

    In the past, people working in Dancheong were called Hwasa, Hwawon, Hwagong, and Dochaejang. If he was a monk, he was called a goldfish or a hwaseung.

    Dancheongjang Lee Jeong-oh was taught traditional dancheong skills from the late monk Ilseop (former holder of intangible cultural assets) who was the head of the largest faction in Korea's Dancheong community. In 1974, he was the youngest (26 years old) to pass the screening test for a designated repair engineer (Dancheong Technician). After that, he worked hard to develop the golden patterns and surrounding patterns, which were the specialties of his teacher, Ilseob, along with the inheritance of traditional patterns and techniques.

    In addition, the Chinese architectural chair's guidebook, "The Painting of the Painting of Yi Mingzhong's Royal Ancestral Code," was used to develop newspaper patterns.

    Lee Jeong-oh's works include the Hapcheon Haeinsa Daeungjeon, Onyang Hyeonchungsa Hyeonchunggak, Yeongnamnu Pavilion, Jikji Daeungjeon Hall, and Deoksuam Daeungjeon Hall in Daejeon.

    Following the genealogy received from his teachers, including the late Sin Eon-su (the holder of the Dancheongjang of Jeonbuk Intangible Cultural Heritage) and the late Park Joon-ju, a former cultural property repair engineer, Kim Seong-gyu possessed the necessary skills as a dancheong technician, including the reproduction of dancheong style of traditional techniques. It also has a record of constructing dancheong at 350 major cultural properties, including national treasures and treasures, and has a well-equipped system, with many of its technicians continuing their careers. As above, he was recognized as the holder because he had sufficient qualifications and conditions.

    He passed the plating and dancheong section of the Cultural Heritage Administration's Cultural Heritage Repair Technique in 1995 and 1996, respectively, and currently serves as a visiting professor at the Korean Traditional Culture University's Institute of Traditional Culture and Education. The collection of Dancheong works includes "The Seowon of 崋藏莊儼 at the end of a brush" (Hunminsa, 2004).
  • 1999.10.18
    Designated date.
    Dancheong refers to the technique of coloring a building or the result of its use, and Dancheongjang refers to a craftsman who does dancheong work. The area of dancheong has traditionally tended to encompass discord, and the recent learning process supports this perception. The history of Dancheong dates back to the Three Kingdoms Period. Damjing of Goguryeo, Baekje's Baekga and Silla's Solgeo are all considered to have been responsible for the responsibility of dancheong as painters who painted murals in temples.

    Dancheong, which is painted on Buddhist temples and palaces with special authority, was used to extend the life span of the building and to serve as both a grandeur. Even among the buildings, the design choices and the degree of decoration were different, and the prestige was different. The royal palaces and the temple's Daeungjeon Hall were treated with a variety of Geumdancheong, Morodancheong, and Geukgi Dancheong. It embodies a bright pattern based mainly on five mineralized stone pigments.

    Dancheongjang includes Yi Chih-ho, Kim Seong-su, Im Seok-jeong, and Hong Chang-won, who were designated as national intangible cultural assets, and many craftsmen are also working in the provinces through their respective transmission systems. Gyeonggi-do Province is the owner of Dancheongjang, and Kim Jong-wook (born 1937) was designated as the head of Dancheongjang in 1999.
  • 1999.10.18
    Designated date.
    Hwagak craft refers to crafts or techniques used to decorate the back by grinding iron horns thinly and drawing patterns. The artisan who works in hwagak is called hwagakjang. Hwagak crafts are unique characteristics of Korean crafts, which are not found in other countries, and show the characteristics of Korean woodcraft along with lacquerware. The origin is unknown, but the shell of a tortoise with similar characteristics was used during the Goryeo Dynasty's Najeonchigi, and the traces of the tortoise were evident after the late Joseon Dynasty.

    Hwagak uses a ventriloquism technique that boils the horns of a bull aged 3 to 5 and spreads them in half to make a flat surface, then stirs them thin enough to show the back, drawing a pattern on the back. Not only does the complexion preserve the color well, but the color is also deeper, enhancing the quality of the craftwork. Each piece of the pattern is attached with a glue on the skeleton, and the cow bones are cut between the pieces to fix the boundary. However, it is not easy to preserve them because of the elasticity of the cones, which were originally cones, over time. Therefore, the process of preparing materials was complicated and cumbersome, and expensive, so it was used by the royal court and the minority ruling class.

    The late Eumilcheon and Lee Jae-man were designated as national intangible cultural assets, while the late Han Chun-seop (1949-2015) of Gyeonggi-do was the only holder of the local incinerator. Han Chun-seop learned the art of painting by entering the Najeonchigi, and then learned the art of painting again under Eumilcheon. Currently, his son, Han Ki-duk, has been designated as an assistant instructor and is working hard to pass down his skills.
  • 1999.10.18
    designated date
    Drumming refers to the art of making traditional drums. The mastermind of the drumming was called "Kang Ssuhuan" in Chinese characters. The drum, which makes sounds by ringing animal skins, is considered one of the most primitive instruments. This is because the sound of leather moves the basic sensibility of human beings more than other materials. Therefore, the North has a very long history, regardless of which country it is, and South Korea is no exception.

    The drum is divided into Jeongakyong, Buddhist temple, and civilian use according to its purpose, and there are many types of drum. In addition to Beopgo, Maegu Book for Nongak, and Sori Book for Pansori, there are 14 types of Jeongak, including Jugo, Yonggo, Yeonggo, and Gyobango, and others, which are commonly known as Beopgo, Maegu Book for Nongak, and Pansori, and Sogo and Janggo for private use. The janggu was originally produced separately, but is now included in the scope of the work of the drumming machine.

    Drums with different names differ in form or method of making them for different purposes. The drum usually uses cowhide, but the janggu needs to use doghook to make its own sound. One of the key points of drumming is the making of the woolen canister and leather tanning technology. The tanning that deals with raw leather is now only partially transmitted. There are ways to cut down the inside of a log and to connect the sides of a tree to make a round ring. Among these, the technology to connect the sides of a tree is very demanding and difficult.

    Bukmaeugi was recognized as a national intangible cultural asset by the late Park Kyun-seok and the late Yun Deok-jin. Currently, Gyeonggi-do Province is tying up and designating drum-maeugi for the musical instrument field. In 1999, Im Sun-bin (born in 1950) was recognized for his function, and his son is recognized as a son.

    Im Dong-guk and other students are actively being taught to him.
  • 1999.10.18
    designated date
    The stringed instrument field among musical instruments refers to craftsmen who produce gayageum and geomungo. During the Joseon Dynasty, it was also called a pungryu or pungmungmuljang. The history of stringed instruments dates back to before the Three Kingdoms Period. The geomungo of six prefectures was invented by Wang Sanak of Goguryeo, and twelve lines of gayageum originated from Gaya. Geomungo was also referred to as Hyeonhakgeum, or cash, which means the most fundamental musical instrument, because black cranes gathered together at a solemn sound. Geomungo is a symbol of harmony among the Yaeak, the core of the political philosophy of oil prices, beyond entertainment, and was also a must-have item in the study of noblemen and scholars.

    In addition to geomungo and gayageum, string instruments include Ajaeng, Haegeum, Daejaeng, Hyangbipa, Wolgeum, Wa Gonghu, Su Gonghu, and Yanggeum, among which Gayageum is largely divided into Jeongakyong and Sanjo. The main ingredient of the string instrument is an odong tree, which is used as an eulimtong, and chestnut wood, which is stronger than this, is used to support the sound. The craftsman who deals with stringed instruments thinks that the difference in sound quality is mainly related to the quality of the paulownia, so he puts his efforts into obtaining quality materials. Since ancient times, it has been widely recognized that the slow-growing Odong in the midst of barren rocks has a soft sound, and Seoksang-dong, recorded in "The Evil Scrolls," is related to this.

    String instruments are among the areas that have been activated compared to other craft fields thanks to the success of Gugak. The late Kim Kwang-ju, Lee Young-soo, and Go Heung-gon have been recognized as national intangible cultural assets. In Gyeonggi-do, strings are tied and designated in the field of musical instrument No. 30-2. In 1999, Choi Tae-soon (born in 1941) was recognized for his function and actively taught to his son Choi Jung-wook and other students.
  • 1999.10.18
    designated date
    Whistle-jobs means fast-paced ones. The name Whistle Japga was given as the relative meaning of the long japga. The sit-down songs of the Jitchang line, such as the Gyeonggido and Whistle Japga, were developed by singers in and around Seoul, focusing on the Manrijae and Cheongpa Island, which were called the Four Seasons of Seoul, during the late Joseon Dynasty.

    When the miscellaneous singers sang, they sang the lyrics and sijo first, followed by a long jagga, a male jagga, and a Whistle jagga before ending the game with a popular folk song. In other words, it can be seen that Whistle Japga was mainly a song that was sung at the end because the humorous lyrics of Whistle Japga played an exciting role. The lyrics of Whistlejapga are usually variations of the long-shaped sijo, which are tightly woven on the stir-frying taryeong rhythm. For this reason, Whistle Japga is included as a branch of the private poem.

    Whistling is characterized by humorous lyrics. Listing the lyrics quickly has the effect of making you focus more on the lyrics. The lyrics of Whistling Japga evoke laughter by exaggerating, enlarging, enumerating, and reversing. Some of the current Hwimori jagga include "Gombo Taryeong," "Gimmaejabong," "Manhakcheonbong," "Gisaeng Taryeong," "Bawi Taryeong," "Bareung Taryeong," "Byeongjeong Taryeong," "Yook Chilwol-ryun Day," "Soongeomtaryeong," and "Bidan Taryeong."

    It is common for a whirling singer to sit alone and sing while playing janggu. The rock taryeong is a mixture of song and Changbu taryeongjo, and the silk taryeong is read like a book, and is sung in the sound of Maengindeokdamgyeong at the end. In addition, Gisaengtaryeong, Maengkongtaryeong and Rocktaryeong are stir-fried taryeong.

    Currently, Kim Kwon-soo, the owner of the Whistlejacka entertainment show, continues to perform and pass on Korean traditional music.
  • 2018.10.18
    designated date
    The traditional arrow bamboo is made up of seven natural ingredients: bamboo, sari, escapee (peach bark), fish bridge (fish-burre grass), iron core, chi (pheasant feather), and chi (pheasant feather) and hunch. In particular, the most important materials are the hard and hard cinuddles.

    The key is to increase the hit rate, which is the life of the arrow, by roasting bamboo on fire and spreading it out properly so that its straight line can be maintained for a long time.

    Kim Byeong-wook, the mayor of the palace in Pohang, possesses the skills and skills of making bamboo poems, which are inherited from tradition, and continues the tradition by implementing them well.