K-Cultural Heritage 11 Page > Little Korea

K-CULTURAL HERITAGE

Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 2018.1.12
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    Each head is a master craftsman who takes charge of managing, repairing, and publishing books at the same time engraves letters and detailed pictures on the bookshelf to make books requiring large withdrawals. Considering the regional characteristics that have established itself as the center of high printing culture, the government intends to designate and preserve the intangible cultural asset that will continue the printing culture of North Chungcheong Province.

    ○ In addition, Park Young-duk, who is striving to develop succession through constant research and systematic and diverse thinking, such as traditional engraving techniques on book boards, will be recognized as the owner of each market and will maintain his reputation.
  • 2018.1.12
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    Yoo Pil-moo, a native of Anseong-myeon, Chungju, has been known as the nation's best" traditional brush-making master" for more than 40 years since he entered the workshop at the age of 16.

    Yoo Pil-moo's traditional brush production method is divided into 13 major processes, ranging from screening the original wool to feeding and subtracting grasses, and in detail, a lot of effort is put into the process, which requires more than 30 courses and 250 touches.

    After the brush is finished, traditional patterns with Korean colors are added to the brush to add beauty.

    In addition, there is a marked difference from other craftsmen in the process of removing fat to make the original wool into a brush stroke, and the method of adhesion of the brush and brush strokes.
  • 2006.1.12
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    The entrance is a technique used in many places to decorate the metal surface with gold or silver thread, and the entrance is our unique name. The term inlaid, which is commonly used together, refers to the technique of making patterns with different materials regardless of the material, and is called yanggam in China. Sanggam is a term that came from Japan. The traditional patterns used for the entrance are plant doors, animal doors, geometries, and letters, and the combination of them is harmoniously shaped, with a painted pattern in the background and a pictorial pattern in the center. The job site is an art that requires a high level of precision workmanship and a high eye for objects and patterns.

    On January 12, 2006 been recognition of activity as holder of the choegyojun.

    ※ For detailed information on the above cultural assets, please refer to the Seoul Metropolitan Government Department of Historical and Cultural Heritage (202-2133-2616)
  • 2006.1.12
    designated date
    The entrance is a technique used in many places to decorate the metal surface with gold or silver thread, and the entrance is our unique name. The term inlaid, which is commonly used together, refers to the technique of making patterns with different materials regardless of the material, and is called yanggam in China. Sanggam is a term that came from Japan. The traditional patterns used for the entrance are plant doors, animal doors, geometries, and letters, and the combination of them is harmoniously shaped, with a painted pattern in the background and a pictorial pattern in the center. The job site is an art that requires a high level of precision workmanship and a high eye for objects and patterns.

    On January 12, 2006 been recognition of activity as holder of the choegyojun.

    ※ For detailed information on the above cultural assets, please refer to the Seoul Metropolitan Government Department of Historical and Cultural Heritage (202-2133-2616)
  • 2005.1.13
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    It is well preserved in the traditional manufacturing technique of feldspar attached to traditional furniture to give it strength and style.
  • 2013.1.14
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    Gungjung Chaehwa, Royal silk flower making, is the art of making flowers with silk or ramie fabric preserved in the royal court of Joseon for the decoration or celebration of various royal and state events such as banquets and ceremonial rituals. The art, which has been registered on the list of Important Intangible Cultural Heritages in recognition of its close connection with the traditions of the Joseon royal court, uses various silk flowers as symbols of peace, longevity, or health.
  • 1985.1.14
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    Pansori Gobeop(way of playing buk) was born after the mid-Joseon Dynasty when Pansori was settled, and the Gosu (the buk player) accompanies Pansori with Buk.

    It is rare to see famous gobeop master in the Joseon Dynasty. In addition, the development of gobeop was minimal as it was regarded as a means of Pansori classes. In the late Joseon Dynasty, pansori developed with a wide variety of characteristics, but it was not until the end of the 19th century that professional gobeop masters came out.

    There are many theories of pansori technique, but they can be largely divided into posture theory, accompaniment theory, and acting theory. Recognized as a holder of pansori high-tech entertainment, Kim Jae-geun is a successor to the late Kim Myung-hwan, and Kim Myung-hwan's theory of pansori has several characteristics.

    The first is to sit down and put the buk a little ahead of the singer's left side, usually with his right foot under his left knee and the buk before him, but Kim Myung-hwan plays next to his left knee. Second, it is considered to be not beautiful to open the drumstick wide or raise it above the head with hands. Thirdly, the playing of the buk is usually 4~6 points depending on the gosu, whereas Kim Myeonghwan is 3 points in the middle of the buk and the right corner of the drum and the front right of the drum.

    Kim Jae-geun, who received the gobeop from Kim Myung-hwan, is striving to foster younger generations with his teacher's old style and his own style.
  • 1985.1.14
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    Pansori refers to a singer who intertwines a long story by mixing sing (sori), narrative (aniri), and a gesture (neoreumsae) to the rhythm of a drummer.

    Pansori was famous for eight pansori singers from around King Sunjo (1800-1834), including Gwon Sam-deuk, Song Heung-rok, Mo Heung-gap, Yeom Gye-dal, Go Su-gwan, and Shin Man-yeop. They developed their rhythms and tunes as they are today. They were divided into regions such as Dongpyeonje (Northeast of Jeolla Province), Seopyeonje (South Jeolla Province), and Junggoje (Gyeonggi and Chungcheongdo Province).

    At the time of Pansori, the length of one madang(piece) was not that long, so the number of Pansori was twelve madangs. Currently, only Chunhyangga, Simcheongga, Sugungga, Heungboga, and Jeokbyeokga are handed down as the five madang or five batangs of Pansori.

    Sugungga is one of the five madangs of Pansori, which is also called Tobyeolga, Rabbit Taryeong, and Byeoljubutaryeong. When the Dragon King became ill, he lured the rabbit to the palace to get the rabbit's liver for medicine. However, it is a pansori that tells the story of a rabbit coming back to life by tricking the Dragon King.
  • 2004.1.15
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    Pansori is one of the arts of the common people, and it is a Changak that reflects the lives of ordinary people in detail. Pansori is an art of singing interestingly, mixing gestures and singing a long story that takes up to three hours to eight hours to complete with the buk(drum) accompaniment of a master singer in a yard or concert hall. It is also a musical drama in the form of a collection, and an epic drama that shows the story as a play. In 'Pan', pansori is the form of a comprehensive art in which stories, songs and acts are performed together.

    On January 15, 2004, Lee Ok-cheon was recognized as the owner of Heungbo, and on January 3, 2013, Jeong Eui-jin was recognized as the owner of the Sugungga.

    ※ For detailed information on the above cultural assets, please refer to the Seoul Metropolitan Government Department of Historical and Cultural Heritage (202-2133-2616).
  • 1967.1.16
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    Jinju Geommu is a sword dance performed by women and handed down in Jinju. Also called Geomgimu or Kalchum, it was one of the dances performed during a party held at the Royal Palace.

    There are two theories about its origin, i.e., one about the Silla people who started dancing in memory of a boy who sacrificed his life for the country and the other about gisaeng (female entertainer) of Jinju engaging in dancing to console the spirit of Nongae, a gisaeng who jumped into the river clasping a Japanese officer during a party held at a pavilion on a riverside cliff during the Japanese invasion in the late 16th Century.

    Jinju Geommu is played by a group of eight dancers in warrior’s uniform to the rhythms of dodeuri, slow taryeong (Korean folk song), and fast taryeong. Two rows of four people on each side dance facing each other, holding a sword and a piece of rainbow-striped cloth in their hands. Dancers’ movements include turning around with bent knees, sitting on the floor, bending forward and then backward, and stretching out the arms with the sword placed on the floor.

    The dance is accompanied by the playing of piri (flute), jeo (bamboo flute), haegeum (two-stringed fiddle), janggo (hourglass-shaped drum), and buk (drum).

    Jinju Geommu as we see today is one that was handed down among gisaeng who belonged to the local government of Jinju. The old ones were presumed to have served previously at the Royal Palace but returned home and taught the dance to the locals.

    Jinju Geommu have artistic value as one that maintains the prototype of the sword dance performed at the Royal Palace in terms of style of performance, movements, and way the swords are handled.
  • 1967.1.16
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    Dano, which falls on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month, is called Nopeun nal (High Day) or Surit nal (Day of Gods). The Dano Festival of Gangneung is one of the festivals with the longest history in the country. On that day, people held a sacrificial rite to mountain gods in Daegwallyeong Pass and prayed for good harvest and peace of the village.

    There are some records left by ancestors about the relevant rites. Chugangnaenghwa, a collection of writings of Nam Hyo-on (1454-1492), contains a statement about a sacrificial rite held for mountain gods and a three-day rite held in March through May. Seongsobubugo, a collection of writings of Heo Gyun (1569-1618), tells a story about witnessing a scene from the Dano Festival of Gangneung in 1603.

    Villagers believed that their village would suffer a calamity unless they held a sacrificial rite on Dano. Thus, they brought a guardian deity from the shrine of tutelary gods in Daegwallyeong Pass. They placed it along with the female guardian of Gangneung on top of an altar and held a sacrificial rite. They are said to have believed the leading tutelary god in Daegwallyeong to be General Kim Yu-sin, the guardian placed on the top of their altar to be Monk Beomil, and the female guardian to be a maid from the local Jeong family.

    Locals make liquor to be served during the festival, on the eve of which they hold a sacrificial rite at the shrine in Daegwallyeong. They take a holy tree and a deity and keep them at the female deity shrine in Hongje-dong. After holding a rite of welcoming the deities in the evening, they take the deities to an altar set up at a riverside place close to Namdaecheon Stream. During the festival, people hold sacrificial rites twice a day for five days at the altar, praying for the peace and prosperity of the village.

    During the festival, special events such as the following are held: mask stage play, tree swinging, ssireum (Korean wrestling), farmers’ music contest, washing the hair in water mixed with changpo (iris; Acorus calamus), eating rice cake made with surichwi (Synurus deltoids), etc.

    On the day after Dano, the holy tree is burned, and the tutelary god is taken back to Daegwallyeong. This marks the close of the Dano Festival.

    The Dano Festival of Gangneung is composed of a Confucianism-style rite held by officiants and a gut performed by exorcists. It is a village festival that is larger in scale than any other held in areas along the East Coast, attracting a large crowd and creating an atmosphere similar to that of an open-air market. The mask stage play, wherein actors act as those from a noble family and slaves, is a pantomime entertaining the audience.

    The festival displays the spirit of locals collaborating with each other. In November 2005, it was designated as UNESCO Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in recognition of its cultural originality and outstanding artistic quality.
  • 1967.1.16
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    As textile traditionally made in the country, mosi (fine ramie) is made of the outer skin of ramie plant stalks. A record made during the reign of King Gyeongmun (r. 861-875) of Unified Silla makes us assume that it was sold to neighboring countries. Ramie plant is a perennial plant. The stalks close to the root are harvested when they turn yellowish brown and the leaves at the bottom are withered. They are harvested three times a year, i.e., between May and early June, between early August and late August, and between early October and late October. Those harvested between early August and late August are the best in terms of quality.

    Fine ramie produced in Hansan is far better than that produced in other areas in terms of quality and exquisiteness. Thus, fine ramie of Hansan has been regarded as synonymous with fine ramie in this country. Fine ramie is produced as follows: first of all, the outer skin is peeled from the harvested stalks; the peeled off skin is soaked in water for about a day and dried; then it is soaked again in water; strands of split ramie pieces are made into threads, and this process of making threads decides the thickness uniformity of threads. Products of Hansan are known for exquisiteness and thickness uniformity. The thickness of threads decides how many strands are to be put into a given space. The threads are starched, and then ramie is woven with a weaving machine. White ramie fabric is made through the process of bleaching based on the repeated process of soaking ramie fabric and then drying it in the sun.

    Ramie fabric is usually divided into 7 sae through 15 sae. One sae refers to 80 warp threads woven into a 30cm wide cloth. A cloth with 10 sae or more is called semosi (finely woven ramie). Ramie cloth is easily broken in a space with insufficient humidity. Thus, ramie weavers should work in unventilated space even in summer. They cannot work on a windy or a rainy day. Nowadays, however, white ramie fabric is made by means of chlorine bleaching. The relevant industry is on the decline with the development of modern textile technology.

    Fine Ramie Weaving of Hansan has been designated as important intangible cultural heritage to maintain the production skills considering its historical value as material for traditional summer clothes, symbolizing the country’s esthetic quality.
  • 2019.1.21
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    ☆Kim Sun-sik, the owner, learned general techniques such as molding, plastic, and glaze from his father (Kim Bok-man) during his middle and high school years, and has been running Gwaneumyo in Galpyeong-ri, Mungyeong-eup, Gyeongsangbuk-do, since his father's death.
  • 2018.1.22
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    ☆Since 1958, Jeong Mun-gil has inherited the traditional roof tiles from its father, and has contributed to the restoration of cultural properties, including Buddhist temples such as Buseoksa Temple in Yeongju, Bulguksa Temple in Gyeongju, and Tongdosa Temple in Yangsan; Dosanseowon Confucian Academy and old houses of in Hahoe Folk Village in Andong.

    As a result of efforts to restore the traditional tile kiln, Jeong Mun-gil built the only traditional tile kiln in the country in June 2017 and is continuing its experiments and efforts to bake traditional tiles in the future.
  • 2006.1.23
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    ☆ Koreans have always held the four most precious ceremonies for ceremonial occasions. In particular, the procedures for regularity are similar nationwide, but they have changed slightly depending on the region.

    The coastal areas of Incheon are not only adjacent to Gyeonggi Province and Hwanghae Province, but also depend on fishing for their means of living, so funeral songs are also influenced by the folk songs and sea songs of Gyeonggi Province and Hwanghae Province.