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K-CULTURAL HERITAGE

Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 2017.11.21
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    •Hwando is a name derived from the fact that it has a cut and wears a ring, a string on the hook, and wears it on the waist. Also called urethra, gangdo.

    The name "Hwando" has been used since the late Goryeo Dynasty. Most of the knives of the Joseon Dynasty were called 'Hwando'. Short and light to carry and use in an emergency. After the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592, the length of the hwando was relatively long. The production of Hwan-do is directly managed by the State. Made by the hwan-do-jang belonging to the military discipline.

    • The functions of the exchange center can be divided into four different types of functions: iron smelting function (filling function), blacksmith craft function (folding function), axillary reinforcement function (unfolding function, tempering function, heating function), and molding and polishing function (fracturing function, grinding function, polishing function), and polishing function. Hong Seok-hyun has mastered all of these functions and has excellent skills.

    • Hong Seok-hyun smelts the sand iron (selected from Yeosu, Hongseong, where the sea meets the river) and makes sand iron steel bars, which are grafted and forged in a traditional manner. The traditional pottery is very strong and has little impurities, so it does not rust easily.

    • Passage decorations are not carried around with a sword, but are worn with a sword, and Hong Seok-hyun expresses his artistic beauty by reproducing the pass decorations seen in Hwan-do.


    • Hong Seok-hyun moved to Seoul in 1968 and acquired woodworking and metalworking until 1982. At this time, the craftsmanship acquisition enabled the expression of artistic beauty as a place of exchange that required a variety of techniques.

    • Hong Seok-hyun was the chief prosecutor Jeon Yong-ha (Dogam Production Workshop/Operation of Daehan Kendo), who was the first prosecutor's license in 1983 by the National Police Agency in 1983.Yi Sun-sin's work on the repair and repair of the general Yi Sun-sin) has received knowledge and functions on the pottery, blade grinding process, and traditional pottery.

    • For seven years from 1992-1998, the late Im Myeong-gil (Dogam Production) has been studying traditional pottery techniques such as blade smoke, charcoal smoke, folding, tempering, loosening, and knitting functions.

    • In 1992, the late Im Myeong-gil was enshrined in a workshop and studied important techniques in traditional pottery techniques for seven years. The late Chung Eung-jo and the late Yu Jeok-seon (metal crafts) were also taught various functions of traditional crafts.

    • It reproduces artifacts, excavated and excavated daggers through the research of ancient documents and functions handed down from various craftsmen to the present since 1989.
  • 2017.11.21
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    Flag and entertainment for producing "paper flowers (jihwa)" for traditional Korean paper, which are used in traditional rituals and Buddhist ceremonies by natural dyeing of traditional Korean paper.

    - There are a total of 17 types of finger paintings in possession of functions, including wood, peony, etc., and 13 types of pigments collected from plants are mixed and used for dyeing.

    Made by repeatedly folding, cutting, pasting, and tying dyed paper with a string.

    - Ingredients include hanji that makes flower petals and flower shapes, and bamboo, sari trees and grass for adhesion needed to make flower beds.
  • 1991.11.23
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    Gayageum Byeongchang refers to singing while riding Gayageum.

    The song is sung by adding gayageum accompaniment while picking a passage from either Danga or Pansori. In Pansori, it is also called Seokhwaje. There is a theory that Kim Changjo, the master of the Gaya Geumsanjo, began to be called in the late Joseon Dynasty.

    Jinyang, Jungmori, Jungjungmori, and Jajinmori are used in Jangdan. The same melody of the gayageum and the song changes to match the principle of the gayageum, fills the space of the song with the gayageum melody, and sometimes adds to the excitement by adding the gayageum ganju.

    Some of the representative songs include Gokcho, Honam, Cheongseoknyeong Pass, Jukjangmanghye, Saranga among Chunhyangga, Jebinojeonggi among Heungbo, and Gogo riverside among Sugungga.

    Gayageum Byeongchang is a valuable cultural asset that seeks pure musical beauty among traditional music.
  • 2006.11.24
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    A palace market is a person who has the ability to make bows and arrows. A person who makes bows is called a mayor who makes bows and arrows.

    Arrows were used in wooden, iron, pyeonjeon, donggaesal, Janggunjeon, and Sejeon. However, the most commonly used ones are yuyeopjeon, which was used for shamanism and practice during the Joseon Dynasty. The yuyeopjeon is about 85cm long and weighs 26.25g (7 sentences), but there are some differences depending on the average person and the bow. Ingredients should be used to surround the sari tree oroni, which will be used to make bamboo and oni, with a pheasant feel, a timbre, and a boulevard. Tools should be equipped with saws, julkal, awl, joldae, indu, scale, pride, mercy, whole grass, crucible, ear-shaped glasses, jolkajabi, brazier, and wooden tongs. When the arrow is completed with the above materials and tools, the last touch is to grab the pawn and rub it with a hammer to polish it. However, there are two types of arrows, so there is a distinction between the right hand and the left hand for the left hand bow.

    Yang Tae-hyun entered the Joseon Dynasty at the age of 16 as a student of Jo Myeong-je (the mayor of an important intangible cultural asset) and Cho Gi-seon, who holds the function of the market, and has been continuing to produce traditional bamboo poems for about 40 years.
  • 2000.11.24
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    Iksan Gisebae Nori is one of the most popular folk games in North Jeolla Province. Gisebae is a folk game of the fifteenth day of the first lunar month, which has been handed down since the old Mahan and Baekje periods.

    The purpose of this play is to gather together 12 villages in Geumma to pray for a good harvest to the god of farming and to create a sense of cooperation and solidarity among the villages.

    The composition of the play consists of a ritual ceremony, a funeral guide, a ritual for Dangsan, a ritual for Gi Se-bae, a ritual for Gi-nori, and a group dance. Since 1995, the Iksan Gi Sebae Preservation Society has been working on the succession and development of this game.
  • 2002.11.25
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    The carpenter, who is a craftsman dealing with wood, is divided into a ranch that builds palaces, temples, or houses, as well as a small ranch that makes furniture, such as a wardrobe, door-gaps, tables, and soban, and other wooden crafts. Building wood refers to the manufacture of small facilities attached to buildings, such as windows, handrails, and closures.

    Currently designated as an intangible cultural asset in Gyeonggi Province, Kim Soon-ki is a small ranch specializing in traditional windows and doors. He uses red pine or yuksong when he can't find the spruce fruit, Chumok or Choonhyangmok. The windows he produced include the Wanja Changshi, the Three-Year-Old Gate, the Rainbow Gate, and the Flower Salmun.

    To make a flower pattern complete with the best floral print among the windows, several pieces must be cut and combined. Instead of simply cutting and attaching them according to the shape, they make and combine the doorknob in a way that crosses the bite.

    He participated in the restoration of Confucian schools, such as Gyeongbokgung Palace, Suwonhyanggyo Local Confucian School, and Hongcheonhyanggyo Local Confucian School, as well as temples and shrines, and produced windows and doors of Seojangdae and Hwahongmun in the Hwaseong Restoration Project.
  • 2002.11.25
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    Onggi is a general term for earthenware and earthenware, and onggi is a pottery that does not have a glaze, and onggi is a pottery that is made of glaze, which corresponds to a narrow meaning.

    Unglazed pottery was the main focus until the Goryeo Dynasty, but from the mid-Joseon Dynasty, black-brown pottery with onggi was produced, and glazed pottery became common in the late Joseon Dynasty.

    Records show that large earthenware jars, called "Ong," were used to store or store liquids or foods such as alcohol, water, soy sauce, and salted fish before the Goryeo Dynasty. It was recently discovered that large quantities of pottery jars excavated from the Taean Mado Sea were used to store water or transport salted fish.

    During the Joseon Dynasty, pottery craftsmen were referred to as "gongjang." According to the "Gyeonggukdaejeon" exhibition factory, 104 of them belonged to 14 central government offices and produced pottery needed by the royal family and government offices.

    Pottery, including onggi, was used in a wide class from the royal family to the private sector and developed with regional characteristics in relation to climate or use.

    Kim Il-man, who was designated as an intangible cultural asset in Gyeonggi Province in 2002, is from a family that has been making pottery for six generations and has devoted himself to making traditional pottery in Gyeonggi Province using three traditional kilns from the late Joseon Dynasty.

    In 2010, he was promoted to the state-designated Important Intangible Cultural Property No. 96, and his sons, Kim Seong-ho and Kim Yong-ho, were designated as messengers, continuing the tradition of Onggi production in Gyeonggi Province.
  • 2012.11.26
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    Song Gwang-mu (1911-1998), who was born in 1954 in Unsu-dong, Gwangsan-gu, Gwangju, began studying Buddhist painting with his father, Song Bok-dong (1911-1998). In the year when it was designated as a tang crematorium, it moved from Gwangsan-gu to Hwaam-dong, Buk-gu.

    He continued his tradition by learning from his father about the functions of the Buddhist temple, and conducted tanghwa, dancheong, ancestral statues, and gaegeum (re-painting the statue) at more than 100 temples across the country, including Odaesan Mountain, Baekyangsa Temple, and Seonunsa Temple. Recently, he has been working on the research of traditional Buddhist paintings through the excavation and reproduction of natural stone-colors, whose production techniques have not been handed down.

    The main characteristics of his Buddhist paintings are the use of iron wire among the 18 brush strokes, the use of the side, the natural coloring used in traditional Buddhist paintings, and the use of traditional natural stoneware. Also, the difference between Gubong and Song Gwang-mu's discord is that the most distinctive feature of the Gubong picture's tanghwa is the expression of 'clouds'. Hwamaek leads to Bakseokcho→Songbokdong→Songgwangmu.

    Song Kwang-moo's investigation report on fire (tang) makeup (2012)
  • 1998.11.27
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    In Jeolla-do, lacquer trees grew all over the country, and many good lacquerware was produced early on, and painting was also popular as wood furniture and woodwork developed around Namwon and Jeonju. Born in 1954, Lee Eui-sik learned lacquer from Choi Kyu-han and Choi Hwan-hee. Lee Eui-sik's lacquer work is famous for its gloss, strength and excellent brushwork that shows the level of refining the paint. He won a number of prizes at the Jeonseung Crafts Competition and the National Crafts Competition, and won a silver prize at the 1993 International Design Competition in Japan.
  • 1969.11.29
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    Nakjukjang refers to a person who has the ability or skill to engrave decorative paintings or writings while burning a fire-burning indu in bamboo.

    It was from ancient China that porridge was used in objects, and it was a very rare technique in Korea, but it was passed down to Japanese colonial era by Park Chang-gyu during the reign of King Sunjo of the Joseon Dynasty (1800-1834).

    Nakjuk requires work experience and speed because it needs to be drawn at a temperature and finished with a pattern or writing before the pharynx cools down. It is mainly used for arrowheads, acupuncture needles, calves, folding screens, tobacco poles, fans, and bamboo pencil cases.

    Nakjuk is most commonly used in thick bamboo (hapjukseon) flesh, which is used at the beginning and end of folding fans. Butterfly designs are often used in Hapjukseon, but bat patterns are sometimes seen.
  • 1996.11.30
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    Nongyo is a song that is sung to forget fatigue and improve efficiency while working on rice paddies and fields, also called wild songs or farming sounds. As one of the folk songs, the song may be sung individually or collectively and may vary depending on the region.

    Composed Nongyo was greatly developed as humans settled in the Geumgokcheon Stream basin and the agricultural culture developed. The contents are composed of Yongsinje, rice planting, dried radish, Asimaegi, Shilcham, and all kinds of objects. The sound of rice planting, "arralal sangsari," and the sound of non-maggy, "eolka lumps" or "dure sounds," are native sounds in the region.

    Composed Nongyo is a pure Korean melody, and it is a reproduction of the old Nongyo and Dure (an organization for joint work) Choi Yang-seop, an entertainment holder living in Hongseong, continues his career.
  • 2012.11.30
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    Born in 1944, Im Soon-ok learned sewing from her aunt and teacher Seo Jeong-soon.

    Im Soon-ok has been engaged in traditional dressmaking, including the costume of the royal court of the Joseon Dynasty, and has been training many disciples through a workshop.

    He has won a number of awards including the Hanbok of Korea, the Chimseon Cultural Products Contest, the Jeollabuk-do Skills Competition, and the Korean Beauty Contest.
  • 1985.12.1
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    Pyeongtaek has long been rich in agricultural products because it has a wide field called Sosatdeul, which has become an important background for Pyeongtaek Nongak.

    In addition, Cheongnyongsa Temple near Pyeongtaek became the base of Sadangpae early on, and their nongak developed greatly at the end of the Joseon Dynasty. Therefore, Pyeongtaek Nongak is both a dure nongak and a geolippae nongak (the work of the masses playing gong and begging each other).

    The instruments used in nongak include kkwaenggwari, gong, drum, bucku, family register, and trumpet. The formation consists of Yeonggi-su, Nonggi-su, Naepal-su, Hojeok-su, Sangsoe, Buyeo, Sangjang-gu, Sangjang-gu, Sangjang-gu, Bubu, Jongbu, Jongbu-gu, Jongbu, Chilmu-dong, Chilmu-dong, Jungae, and Yangban.

    Nongak players wear costumes worn by military graduates in the past, wear colored bands on top of them, and wear a hat or cone hat on their heads. In terms of musical instruments, the gongs and drums are smaller than other regions, and there is no distinction between Sogo and Beopgo.

    The cover of the melody is clear, and the presence of songgut is also unique. In addition, Gilgunakchilchae is a genre only seen in Gyeonggi Nongak, and Gilgunakchilchae in Pyeongtaek Nongak is distinguished from other regions.

    Pyeongtaek Nongak is a high-quality nongak that is based on the simple tradition of dure nongak, but is composed of a combination of professional performances by namsadangpae entertainers who are highly performing, and Mudong Nori (a child dancing on an adult's wooden horse) was developed in particular.
  • 1985.12.1
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    Referring to farmers’ music that has been handed down in Iksan (previously called “Iri”), Iri Nongak belongs to Honam Udo Nongak (Farmers’ Performance of the Eastern Jeolla-do). Nongak (farmers’ performance) has developed briskly in Saesil Village in Iksan. The village brought people who learned farmers’ music from experts in nearby areas like Gimje and Jeongeup and who trained a high-quality farmers’ music troupe as we see today. An Iri nongak troupe is composed of yonggi (dragon flag), nonggi (farmers’ flag), swaenap (conical wooden oboe), trumpet, samul [four percussion instruments, i.e., two kkwaenggwari (small gongs), two jing (large gongs), two buk (drums), and four janggo (hourglass-shaped drums)], beopgo (Buddhist drum), and japsaek [referring to a group composed of yangban (nobleman), daeposu (drummer), jorijung (masked clown), changbu (male clown), gaksi (young girl), and mudong (dancing boys)]. Troupe members who are called chibae or gunchong wear black vest over white jacket, white trousers, and sangmo (hat with feathers or strings attached), with bands in three colors tied around the head. Kkwaenggwari (small gong)-based rhythms include those related to ilche, ichae, samchae, oemachijilgut, pungnyugut, ochaejilgut, jwajilgut, yangsando garak, hohogut, and obangjin garak. Pangut (entertainment-oriented performance) proceeds in the order of insagut, ochaejilgut, jwajilgut, pungnyugut, yangsando, ginmaedoji (joint performance of kkwaenggwari and janggo), sambangjingut, banguljingut, hohogut, dallachigi, short maedoji, jjakdeureum, ilgwang nori, gujeong nori (individual play), and gi sseulgi. There are diverse forms of bupo nori (hat dance) performed by sangsoe (leader of the farmers’ music troupe). Well-developed janggo rhythms and dances are mixed with the music. The performance also features sogochum (small drum dances) and jinpuri march. Many rhythms are relatively slow. The music makes colorful rhythms, each played to meticulously transformed tunes. Pungnyugut and deongdeokgungi-related rhythms showcase highly sophisticated techniques. Iri Nongak is a folk art performance that has been handed down along with the village history, playing an important role as an event that provides consolation in the hard life of farmers and helps villagers get along with each other well.
  • 1985.12.1
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    Gangneung Nongak is one of the most popular Yeongdong Nongak, which is handed down to the east of the Taebaek Mountains in Gangwon-do, and is also called Farming Pool Nongak because it has a farming pool that imitates and reproduces agricultural life. Although there are no exact records of its origin, it is presumed that it originated from the beginning of agricultural life.

    Gangneung Nongak is composed of Nonggi, Clenap (Lalari), Kkwaenggwari, Jing, drum, janggu, sogo, Beopgo (small drum used for Buddhist ceremonies), and Mudong (Sanaei). The performers wear white trousers and red, blue, and yellow tricolor bands, while the mudongs wear clothes mixed with various colors.

    Gangneung Nongak has three to four days of Nongak band walking from house to house around the fifteenth of lunar January, geollip nongak where Nongak and gosa are performed in order to collect joint funds from the village, gimaegi nongak, which is performed in the yard when gimmaegi is over, and jilmukgi when gimmaegi is over, and during the spring hwajeon nori.

    There are Dalmajigut (a wish for the moon), torchlight, and brass leg bapgi (a game in which young women pick one person to walk over their waist), and there are Gimmaegi nongak, Jilmukgi, and Gilnori nongak, which can be called Dure nongak.

    Gangneung Nongak plays an important role in promoting mutual harmony and village unity, forgetting the hardships of farming.