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K-CULTURAL HERITAGE

Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 1968.12.21
    designated date
    As a drum dance handed down in Tongyeong (Chungmu), Gyeongsangnam-do, it was performed by barmaids and boys. During the Japanese Invasion of Korea (1592-1598), Admiral Yi Sun-sin had this dance played to boost the morale of his troops or celebrate the victory of battles. Many dances performed in Tongyeong, a naval town, were called Seungjeonmu (Victory Dance). Only the Mugo (Drum Dance) was designated as important intangible cultural heritage under the name Seungjeonmu in 1968. Nine years later, Geommu (Sword Dance) was included in said designation. Looking at how a victory dance is performed, four dancing women in ceremonial dress with long white cuffs make movements, gathering in the direction of the drum placed at the center and then scattering in four directions with soft steps after beating the drum; thus creating a grand, joyous atmosphere. Samhyeon dodeuri (dodeuri rhythm music by three strings) and taryeong (Korean folk song) were used as accompaniment in music. The overall dance movements are simple and antiquated, carrying unique local characteristics. Dancers performing a sword dance wear white jacket, red skirt, black sleeveless coat, military official’s hat, red belt, and jacket with long, multicolor-striped undershirts while holding a sword in each hand. The tools used and dancers’ movements in Seungjeonmu are similar to the Mugo performed at the Royal Palace. The elegant dance movements, melodies of music, and overall exquisite arrangement make it a dance with high artistic and traditional value.
  • 1968.12.21
    designated date
    There are several types of strings used to make decorative knots. Circular strings used in accessories or pouches are called dongdahoe. Wide and flat strings used in waist belts are called gwangdahoe, whereas knots used in attire or ceremonial accessories are called gyeokdap or gyeolja. Knots date back to the primeval period, but the techniques for making knots or dyeing them as handed down in this country were introduced from China during the Three Kingdoms Period. During the Joseon Period, the government designated knot craftsmen. As for the materials used to make knots, there are threads made of silk, ramie, mulberry, hemp, and woolen yarn. Knot shapes vary depending on the color, thickness, and methods used for tying. The names used to call them differ from region to region. The names were based on household items, flowers, or insects, such as ginger piece, butterfly, dragonfly, chrysanthemum, etc. Tassels were attached to the lower end of the decorative knots used for musical instruments, vehicles, or Buddhist ceremonies. There were diverse types and levels of tassels depending on their use, i.e., whether they were for the Royal Palace or ordinary households.
  • 1968.12.21
    designated date
    Sanjo refers to the playing of an instrument solo to the accompaniment of janggo (hourglass-shaped drum), moving from slow to fast rhythm, in four to six movements. Gayageum Sanjo is Korean instrumental folk music played solo with gayageum (twelve-stringed zither). Gayageum Byeongchang refers to the singing and playing of gayageum at the same time. All Sanjo start with slow rhythm and gradually changes to faster rhythm, making listeners feel tense and increasingly delighted. Gayamgeum Sanjo is made up of four to six rhythms: jinyangjo (slow), jungmori (moderate), jungjungmori (moderately fast), jajinmori (fast), and hwimori (fastest). Compared to other instrument-based Sanjo, Gayageum Sanjo masters could form diverse schools thanks to the unique characteristics of gayageum. A singer engaging in Gayageum Byeongchang sings a part of danga or pansori to the accompaniment of his/her own gayageum playing. Gayageum Byeongchang used to be sung by Gayageum Sanjo masters, but the current tendency is for the separation between players of Sanjo and Byeongchang. A song sung as Byeongchang creates its own atmosphere due to the unique melody of gayageum. The following are well-known parts of Gayageum Byeongchang: Jebinojeonggi (Route of the Swallow's Trip) of Pansori Heungboga (Song of Heungbo), Sarangga (Song of Love) of Chunhyangga (Song of Chunhyang), Gogocheonbyeon (Brightness of the Sunshine in the Sky) of Sugungga (Song of the Rabbit and the Turtle), and “Sim Cheong’s Father on His Way to Hwangseong” of Simcheongga (Song of Sim Cheong).
  • 1988.12.21
    designated date
    The wild song is a folk song sung during farming, and the wild song of Jangsan-do is a song sung by women in Jangsan-myeon, Sinan-gun.

    Jangsan-do's wild song is a song that is exciting and exciting, even though it is a tough life for women and a song with deep sorrowful. Also, as it is an island, it is not mixed with other local folk songs, so it is native and has a feminine melody. The plot consists of a mochi-gi song sung by steaming rice paddies, a rice planting song sung by planting rice paddies, and a rice paddies song sung by rice paddies on their way back. It is not boring because it changes from late tunes to fast tunes such as Jungmori, Jungjungmori, and Jajinmori, and it is completely different from Jindo's wild songs and Namdo's labor songs on land.

    Jangsando Deulsong is a folk song that contains the lives of the Korean people, and it is designated as an intangible cultural asset because it has unique rhythms and contents.
  • 1988.12.21
    designated date
    A folk song is a song that comes naturally among the people and is passed down from mouth to mouth. It is closely related to life by functions such as occupation, wind speed, play, etc., and may vary depending on the preference of the region or callers, or spontaneously.

    The fishing songs in Korea are divided into work songs sung while working in the sea and boat songs sung while rowing, and the anchovy song in Gageodo is a combination of these two types of folk songs. The contents include the sound of brass, the sound of netting, the sound of liquor rain, the sound of net raising, the sound of quick rowing, and the sound of windmills. The brass sound is a song sung when rowing on the way to catch anchovies, and the sound of an anchovy hat is a song that drives anchovies with a torch lit when anchovies are found. The sound of Sulbi is a song that is sung when the anchovies are scooped up with phlegm. The fast rowing sound is a song sung when the boat is full of anchovies as it raises its net and returns home.

    This song is a combination of a boat song and a song sung when catching anchovies, forming a folk song, and has a singing style that is not found in other local folk songs. The melody is also called Sinawijo, so it has a deep correlation with Muak and will be valuable material to reveal the true nature of the folk songs of the South.
  • 2017.12.21
    designated date
    The charcoal work of Gwangnyeosan Mountain is a collection of the charcoal work of Aehwan, which was sung during the process of producing charcoal. Therefore, the sequence of development of the song shows the process of producing charcoal.

    The period of producing charcoal is quite long. Therefore, the sound of charcoal work is mixed with songs of each genre. A ritual song was sung when performing a ritual, a play song when resting, and a labor song when working. Therefore, the song was sung individually when the participants worked together and individually when they were working together, and the most prominent characteristic of charcoal Ilsori is that the various styles of singing and various genres coexist together.
  • 2017.12.21
    designated date
    Although its origin is not clear in Anui-myeon, Hamyang-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, it has been known as the main place where gongs have been made since the Silla Dynasty, and there were 10 places to make gongs until 1970.

    Lee Yong-gu, 81, the father of the craftsman, was also taught to be a skilled craftsman at Oh Deok-su's (20-year-old, 亡), who has traditional techniques for making gongs after his father passed away at the age of nine and went into his mother's distant relative's house as a henchman, succeeding Kim Seong-no, Kim Dong-chun, and Kim Dal-yong, the original royal family.
  • 2002.12.23
    designated date
    Gyubang Darye is a restoration and succession of traditional Korean tea culture, and the restoration and establishment of tea culture and etiquette in everyday life in Incheon.

    Since Lee Gwi-rye, a skilled craftsman, learned tea etiquette from her grandfather who had been involved in the Donghak Movement since childhood in 1973, she received the lifestyle and form from Yoo Seung-guk, a professor at Sungkyunkwan University, and the Jeonju Yi Clan's Incheon Support Center.

    In 1974, Dagyeong, Dasin, Dongdasong, and Gukjo Orye were studied in various literature and traditional Buddhist temples. In 1978, the Korean Tea Association and the Korea Tea Culture Association in 1980, the tea ceremony were restored and developed and distributed.
  • 1991.12.23
    designated date
    Pogurakmu is one of the dances and songs performed in the royal court, representing the game of throwing a ball into a hole. According to "The History of Goryeo" and "The Treasures of Evil," Pogurakmu originated from China during the Goryeo Dynasty and was passed down to the early Joseon Dynasty. Jinju Pogurakmu originated from Jeong Hyeon-seok's Gyobang song (a song and dance performed to welcome wages on the road) during the reign of King Gojong (1863-1907).

    Pogurakmu wears a crown (a hat used for dancing and singing) on a mongduri (a dress worn by a giraffe or shaman). If you look at the sequence of proceedings, you will first place the port gate in the middle and divide it into two pieces. When you play music that marks the beginning, the bamboo ganza (a person holding a stick made of bamboo) goes further and stands on the left and right sides of the port gate, shouting slogans and backing down. Dance in various shapes according to different rhythms and throw the ball into the hole one by one. When the ball goes in, it receives a flower as a prize and sings the song, but if it doesn't go in, it is dipped in a brush with ink and stamped on the face. The last of the chants of the bamboozle is to leave with a dance.

    Jinju Pogurakmu is a Pogurakmu handed down from Jinju. The characteristic is that the flower crowns, mongduri and bamboo ganja in the royal port rock dance were removed, a song was added to the performance marking the beginning of the banquet, and a change in the method of reward and punishment was made. Jinju Pogurakmu was handed down as a unique play with folk elements along with various changes as Pogurakmu came down to the provinces, and Jeong Geum-soon, who lives in Jinju, continues to play.
  • 1991.12.23
    designated date
    Nongak is the music played by farmers when they squeeze their dure and play percussion instruments such as kkwaenggwari, Jing, Janggu, and drum.

    Haman Hwacheon Nongak, a type of nongak in Gyeongsangnam-do, was originated from the villagers who selected the large tree in front of the village as the sacred tree and held a ritual on the first day of the year on the eve of September and the first day of the Sangwol, praying for peace and a good harvest in the village, and playing nongak.

    Nongak marched in one line to the rhythm of Sangsoe and danced in three circles to the round Gilgut and Salpugiak, while Yeongsan Da-Dragongigut and Gutmadang played by Yeongsan Dada-Dragongigut and Jangdokgigut played by Yeongsan Daryeonggi, which were played in three circles according to the rounding Gilgut and Salpugiak.Jangdan Nori Gut (Jangdan Nori Gut) is frequently performed in the order of wishing for a good harvest.

    Currently, Bae Byeong-ho and Park Cheol are recognized as the owners of Haman Hwacheon Nongak, and they are striving to succeed in the war.
  • 1997.12.23
    designated date
    The earliest records in the literature on fan records are the Three Kingdoms Period, in which Gyeonhwon (r. 892-935) of the Later Baekje Kingdom dedicated a duke ship to King Taejo of Goryeo (918-943).

    The debt is largely divided into the original and the folding fan, and the craft belongs to the original. Also known as Banggu Fan, there are five-leaf, lotus, reef, taegeuk, and peacock lines, and among them, peacocks have long been loved for their splendid and elegant craftwork.

    Lee Han-kyu, a fan function holder, has been continuing to build the craft after receiving the technology from his father Lee Eul-yong.
  • 1997.12.23
    designated date
    The sound of bosori in Yongjeong-ri, Buyeo, is called hosang-sori, which means the death of a person who has lived in good fortune for a long time. The exact date of the song's beginning is unknown, but it is believed to have been handed down from a long time ago through Ha Un (the owner of the show).

    Yongjeong-ri's bier sound is composed of various sounds, such as Jinsori, even-numbered, two-syllable, and self-sound. Among them, the bier is divided into two parts, and it is characterized by even-handedness in which the bier is exchanged. When the bier goes out, the slowest Jin-sori starts the even number. When one sound is over, another sound begins, not the chorus. In other words, there is a overlapping sound in the form of giving and receiving, which makes it a overlapping sound. Because they sing the other two lyrics, their high singing ability is displayed, and their sad and solemn musicality stands out. These even-handed sounds are found only in Buyeo and Gongju, and are characteristic sounds of Baekje culture.

    The sound of the bier in Yongjeong-ri, Buyeo, is unique with its majestic sound that shows the whole community's overcoming of grief over death.
  • 1997.12.23
    designated date
    The sound of bier is called dalgong sound, while the sound of bier in Bonghyeon-ri, Gongju, is called dalgong sound. Gongju-si was the administrative center of Chungcheong-do during the Joseon Dynasty, and the custom was developed due to the tradition of Yangban-gun's failure. In Gongju, a bier managed by the government office, Yeokdamjaeng, was introduced, and the sound of Dalgong, a princess, was passed down in Bonghyeon-ri 200 years ago.

    Gongju's bier sound is composed of bier sound, sinmun sound, component phlegm sound, and dalgong sound. There are eight kinds of bier sounds, including the sound of the main gim, the chorus of the chorus, and the sad and long jinsori of Chungcheong-do dialect, and the lyrical lyrics of the folk songjo are the main ones. The sound of phlegm gathering the soil of the tomb is the sound of scrotum and frequent sounds of gin and fast bier. The sound of dalgong is composed of four types: the sound of donation, jindalgong, jajundalgong, and saddle sound.

    Bonusori in Bonghyeon-ri, Gongju, has been handed down from more than 200 years ago and has an important meaning.
  • 1964.12.24
    designated date
    The gat, a traditional Korean hat, was an essential item of attire for men whenever they went out in public. It was referred to by several different names including Heungnip, Chillip, or Pyeongnip. Gannil, the method of making these hats with fine bamboo strips or horsehair, involved a complex series of techniques in which the chongmoja (the cup-shaped upper part of the hat) and the yangtae (its brim) were produced first, and then combined in a process called ipja, which consisted in covering the headgear with silk fabric and lacquering. The demand for Korean bamboo hats declined sharply after the proclamation of the topknot decree and the introduction of Western culture including western-style clothing in the 20th century. The heritage is currently preserved in Tongyeong, Yecheon and Jeju.
  • 1964.12.24
    designated date
    Pansori is a traditional Korean genre of epic musical storytelling in which a sorikkun (single performer) presents a long narrative work comprising sori (singing), aniri (lyrics), and neoreumsae (gestures) to the accompaniment of a gosu (drummer). While its exact origin is unknown, some scholars believe that pansori developed during the reign of King Sukjong of the Joseon Dynasty on the basis of Chunhyangga, which was composed by Yu Jin-han in 1754, while others trace its origin to an entertainment mentioned in a document dating back to the early days of the Joseon Dynasty. Still others argue that it dates back to Silla, where folk entertainments called pannoreum were widely performed. The musical accompaniment of Pansori consists of a variety of rhythms called jinyangjo, jungmori, jungjungmori, and hwimori. The drummer accompanying the singer breaks out into shouts of praise and encouragement, such as “Great!” and “Perfect!”, known as chuimsae, at the appropriate endings. During the reign of King Sunjo (1800-1834) of Joseon, there were eight masters of pansori, including Gwon Sam-deuk, Song Heung-rok, Mo Heung-gap, Yeom Gye-dal, Go Su-gwan, and Sin Man-yeop, each of who played a key role in the development of the musical genre into the form we know today. The current tendency is to divide Pansori into the following three schools: Dongpyeonje, which developed in the northeast area of Jeolla-do; Seopyeonje, which developed in the southwestern region of the peninsula; and Junggoje, which developed in Gyeonggi-do and Chungcheong-do. In its early stage, there were twelve great Pansori works, including Chunhyangga (Song of Chunhyang), Simcheongga (Song of Sim Cheong), Sugungga (Song of the Rabbit and the Turtle), Heungboga (Song of Heungbo), Jeokbyeokga (Song of the Red Cliff), Baebijang taryeong (Song of General Bae), Byeongangsoe taryeong (Song of Byeon Gang-soe), Jangkki taryeong (Song of the Cock-Pheasant), Onggojip taryeong (Song of the Miser Onggojip), Musugi taryeong (Song of Military Officials), and Gangneung maehwa taryeong (Song of Plum Blossoms of Gangneung), which were much shorter than the five works remaining today, namely, Chunhyangga, Simcheongga, Sugungga, Heungboga, and Jeokbyeokga. These five Pansori works have been designated as Important Intangible Cultural Heritages by the Korean government and are performed widely across Korea by various performers, including the following select group of government-acknowledged masters: Kim Yeo-ran, Kim Yeon-su and Kim So-hui (Chunhyangga); Jeong Gwon-jin (Simcheongga); Park Nok-ju (Heungboga); Jeong Yong-hun and Park Cho-wol (Sugungga); Park Dong-jin, Park Bong-sul, and Han Gap-ju (Joeokbyeokga).