K-Cultural Heritage 3 Page > Little Korea


Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 2014.7.28
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    Yeongsanjae is a form of 49jae (a ritual held on the 49th day of the death of a person), a ritual in which the soul believes in and relies on Buddhism to make it to paradise.

    It is also known as the "Yeongsanjakbeop (법法 대표적인) Act" (法法) as a representative rite of Buddhist Cheondoism.Yeongsanjae, the 50th Important Literary Cultural Property, has been preserved and handed down to this day by the Yeongsan Production Act 2,500 years ago.

    In recognition of its value, UNESCO was listed as a World Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2009. In July 2014, Gwangju Metropolitan City designated 'Gwangju Yeongsanjae' as the city's cultural heritage No. 23.
  • 2005.7.28
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    Kim Sam-sik was born on September 9, 1946 at 131 Naseori, Nongam-myeon, Mungyeong-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do. At the age of 9, he lost his father and went to a dak factory run by his cousin Yoo Young-woon (male, 80 years old, Galdong-ri, Nongam-myeon) to work on making hanji, and has been a close relationship with Hanji for 48 years now.

    Thirty years ago, there were about 20 hanji factories in Mungyeong, but now there is only one run by Kim Sam-sik.Traditional hanji is too difficult to produce, with all the work done manually, and there are many difficulties in producing traditional hanji due to the distribution of general paper due to the development of the modern paper industry, and the reduction of the acceptance of traditional hanji due to the distribution of modified hanji using cheap imported materials.

    Despite these social conditions, the company only insists on producing traditional hanji (soji), Imulji, Samhapji, Dujangmui, and Seokjangmui (Jangpanji) using traditional buckwheat straw ashes.

    In addition, with the belief that "our species should be the dacha tree grown on our soil," he also creates quality traditional hanji from the nature of our country, the dachapult, clear water and abundant solar energy, and supplies it to customers who know his true craftsmanship.

    In particular, he prepared a new workshop at his home in 1999, which means "planting the truth, planting conscience, and planting tradition will be a branch of traditional Korean paper." He also developed a drying rack that uses boilers to reduce fuel costs, setting aside all his work and lecturing on traditional Korean paper without missing an explanation of traditional Korean paper, showing any enthusiasm for the promotion of traditional Korean paper.

    Currently, he is making hanji with his wife Park Geum-ja and son Chun-ho, and his only successor, Chun-ho, is concentrating on the technology transfer of traditional hanji, helping his father make hanji.

    With traditional Korean paper rapidly disappearing, it is a traditional Korean paper representing the western region in addition to Cheongsongji in the eastern region.
  • 2005.7.28
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    This sound combines 11 kinds of farming songs sung in Jain-myeon, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and the general characteristics of the farming songs of Gyeongsang-do, Menarijo and Seotbaegi rhythm, are still alive.

    While Zain is located in the inland area of Gyeongsang-do and has maintained its own melody.

    In addition, the Gyeongsang-do area has a strong and rugged dynamic character, resembling the local residents' tone and accent.
  • 2010.7.30
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    The voice refers to a person who has the ability to make traditional Korean combs, and the combs have a long history, with wooden combs found in the Nakrang ruins and bamboo combs in the Three Kingdoms Period, and in the Unified Silla Period, chuchil combs and hwagak combs passed down to this day.

    In particular, the Gyeongguk daejeon records the development of traditional woodworking techniques and the differentiation of professional craftsmen, including pasture, sculpture, individual burial, voice, wood burial, pungmuljang, pyojang, blacksmith, constipation, and umbrella fields.

    The main ingredients of the comb (allebit) are jujube, apricot, bacchus, walnut, and cedar, and other traditional hardwoods, and are decorated with bamboo, auricular, aphoroid, and ivory.

    The method of production 1) is to turn the selected tree down to a suitable thickness and dry it sufficiently 2) The dry tree is cut to the size of the comb along the straightening pattern (3) with a silk pad, then the shape of the comb is fixed to the comb frame with a pattern, and 5) a saljab is used to trim the comb and cut the outer shape with a spinning saw, and a basic blade (cut with a spinning saw)).Draw a picture of the back of a piece of cloth that is thinly trimmed by mm to 2mm, cut accordingly, attached to the body with a beret, polished with fine sandpaper, 10) and decorated (chilbo, silver, and knot) the comb that has been finished with the final touch, and the work is completed when the work.
  • 1999.7.31
    Jigeonori is a folk game using jigae, which was a traditional vehicle of Korea. In rural and mountainous villages, where there were many mountains and no separate roads, forklifts were an essential means of transportation. In Yanggu, Gangwon-do, they played a game using snow crabs to forget the hardships and monotony of labor and to gain pleasure.

    Yanggu Dolsanryeonggeori Nori includes a walk-by fight and a group bier. A fork fight is a game of climbing on two legs of a forklift, holding its head tightly, walking, hitting the opponent and knocking him down. The bier-play ties the pieces together to make a bier and carry it on, and sings the composed bier, pushing the bier of the opponent's bier. After a game, the losing team carries the winning team's losing streak.

    In the bier game, there is a hoedaji nori, which is a playful play of the custom of ironing pits at funerals, singing hoedaji sounds and playing with a clapper's stick. What's interesting is that Gaegwacheonseon's moral message that a person who is unfaithful or unfriendly during the hoedaji play and who does not cooperate with the village affairs are chosen as Hoedaji characters and that the person's heart becomes better after playing.

    Yanggu Dolsanryeong Gegi Nori is a unique mountain folk play made by combining traditional funeral rituals and earth crabs, and is only seen in mountains in Gangwon-do.
  • 1988.8.1
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    As nongak (farmers’ music) that has been handed down in Pilbong, Imsil, Imsil Pilbong Nongak belongs to Honam Jwado Nongak (Farmers’ Performance of the Western Jeolla-do). Simple farmers’ music such as that performed on occasions like dangsangut (rite to village guardian) or madang bapgi (treading on the courtyard) had been handed down in this village. The music is said to have become sophisticated around 1920 when the villagers started learning the performing skills from Park Hak-sam, who served as sangsoe (leader of a farmers’ music troupe). The members of a farmer’s music troupe wear white jacket and trousers, with blue vest over the jacket and bands in three colors tied to the head. As for the headgear, only the soejabi (gong player) wears sangmo (hat with feathers or strings attached); others wear gokkal (conical hat). A farmer’s music troupe is composed of yonggi (dragon flag), nonggi (farmers’ flag), long soenabal (trumpet), samul [four percussion instruments, i.e., two kkwaenggwari (small gongs), two jing (large gongs), two buk (drums), and four janggo (hourglass-shaped drums)], beopgo (Buddhist drum), japsaek [referring to a group composed of yangban (nobleman), daeposu (drummer), jorijung (masked clown), changbu (male clown), gaksi (young girl), hwadong (young girl) and mudong (dancing boys)]. The local farmers’ music has many versions according to different occasions: maegut (village ritual held on New Year's Eve on the lunar calendar), madang bapgi, dangsanjegut (rite to village guardians), duregut (performance for villagers’ unity), and pangut (entertainment-oriented performance). Among them, Pangut showcases the best artistic quality. The Yeongsan rhythms contained in the local farmer’s music in Imsil are slow with have many variations, such as gajin yeongsan, dadeuraegi yeongsan, mijigi yeongsan, jaeneomgi yeongsan, gunyeong nori yeongsan, etc. The local farmer’s music in Pilbong, Imsil features clear-cut rhythms of kkwaenggwari (small gongs), powerful/gallant rhythms, and emphasis on teamwork rather than individuals’ skills.
  • 1972.8.1
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    Dancheong refers to Korean traditional decorative coloring of blue, red, yellow, white, and black made on wooden buildings and structures like royal palaces or temples for the purpose of style, or to a painter specializing in the skill. A Buddhist monk with such a skill is called hwaseung. Dancheong is found in tombs dating from the Three Kingdoms Period (circa 57 BC – 668 AD). The skill developed with the development of Buddhism. Let us see how the dancheong work is accomplished. First of all, the space where dancheong is to be done is cleaned. Water boiled with a small amount of glue is applied to the surface of the space five times. Bluish green soil mixed with water is then applied to the surface. A sheet of paper with the original drawing of a pattern is put on the space and the powder pouch is put lightly on the drawing sheet. The process causes powder to attach to the space through awl-made holes in the drawing sheet, thus forming a pattern. Mineral pigments in blue, red, yellow, white, and black are applied to the pattern thus formed on the space. Dancheong helps preserve the wood and make the building look sacred and dignified. The practice was once in vogue also in China and Japan, but has been handed down to the present day only in Korea.
  • 1988.8.1
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    Badi is part of a loom that weaves hemp cloth. Badijang refers to a skill of making badi, or to an artisan with such a skill. A threaded spindle found at a site dating from the Neolithic Period tells us that fabric weaving started as early as that period. Badi is made of bamboo bark. Three to four-year old bamboo is appropriate for making badi due to its solidness and thickness. The types of badi vary, depending on whether the cloth to be woven is hemp cloth, silk fabric, ramie cloth or cotton fabric. Badi made in Andong and Hansan are known for their good quality. Hansan ramie cloth is known all over the world. Badi production has been in decline amid the development of synthetic fibers, but the tradition is stil maintained in Hansan.
  • 1988.8.1
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    Bedding refers to the art of making clothes and accessories by sewing, and the person with the skill is called a bedclothes.

    It is said that it was before the historical era that people began sewing. The Silla metalwork, similar to the current needle, was discovered, and the Goguryeo tomb murals and "The Three Kingdoms Period" show that a considerable level of bedding had already been developed since the Three Kingdoms Period. As the bedding continued from the Goryeo and Joseon periods, it was further developed and passed down to this day.

    The necessary tools for the bedding include cloth, needle, thread, failure, thimble, scissors, ruler, iron, iron, nail needle, etc.

    As for fabrics, silk, cotton, ramie, and linen are mainly used. In fact, many cotton yarn are used, and the choice of yarn depends on the material, color, thickness, etc. of the fabric.

    The stitching method is basic persimmon and groove, stitching, stitching, topknoting, whipping, squinting, drawing, etc., and the necessary stitching method is used depending on the area of the garment.

    According to seasonal changes, seams are sewn thinly in summer, and cotton is added in spring and fall to make warm clothes.

    In the old days, all women had to know how to make a bed, so they learned how to sew and learned how to do it. In the royal court, the technique was inherited.
  • 1988.8.1
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    In this performance, an exorcist disguised as an ox prays for a good harvest, good commercial business, and success for children. It is presumed that the performance started during the Joseon Period (1392 – 1910). This performance is preceded by Jeseokgeori (Ritual Song for the Deity Jeseok) that is said to control things relating to longevity, grains, clothes and fortune/misfortune. It used to be held in Giho and Haeseo, Hwanghae-do. The performance starts around sunset and continues until the daybreak of the following day. Six female exorcists play janggo (hourglass-shaped drum), jing (large gong), jeo (bamboo flute), and piri (flute). Eight fabric straps are hung from above indicating the path through which Eight Heavenly Maids will descend. At the bottom of the fabrics are placed eight tubs, where the fairies will take a bath. An exorcist disguised as Sambuljeseok (Three Heavenly Deities) in a white robe and a hat sings a song about how he arranged the foundation of Joseon as instructed by the Jade Emperor of Heaven. By this time, a cowman appears, leading a cow. The performance ends with a scene of the deity Jeseok taking a trip to Seocheon Seoyeokguk (ancient India), while patrolling officers engage in a round of dance. Buddhist deities appearing in the performance, including Sambuljeseok Buddha, are a unique sight that cannot be found in any other exorcism performances. Pyeongsan Sonoreumgut (Shamanic Ox Performance of Pyeongsan, Hwanghae-do) was able to be maintained thanks to Jang Bo-bae, an exorcist from Pyeongsan, who continued the performance after the country’s liberation. As an event strongly influenced by Buddhism, the performance also combines elements of entertainment and high artistic quality. It serves as an occasion to pray for the happiness of local people and to strengthen the ties among them.
  • 1988.8.1
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    Jewajang refers to the skill of making roof tiles, or to an artisan with such a skill. Roof tiles were used to make the buildings look better, in addition to their inherent function. In olden days, they symbolized the authority and wealth of the building’s owner. Roof tiles were first used in areas along the Daedonggang River during the 2nd – 1st Century BC. They were introduced from Han Dynasty China and gradually spread throughout the Korean Peninsula. Roof tiles are divided into convex and concave types. Ancillary ornamental tiles include convex roof-end tile, concave roof-end tile, roof tile with demon face design, dragon finial, and tiles placed at both ends of the top ridge. Looking at how roof tiles are made, sticky clay mixed water is put into a wooden mold. After a period of drying, the clay is cut to an appropriate size and pattern and then put into a kiln, which is heated to a temperature higher than 1000℃. Adequately baked roof tiles are black or silver gray in color. Each region developed its own unique roof tiles, but concrete or slate-roofed buildings have lately pushed aside buildings with roof tiles. At present, roof tiles are produced only in Ulsan and Jangheung, Jeollanam-do.
  • 2013.8.2
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    Kim Seong-ho, the owner of the lacquer, is a master craftsman who has been learning lacquer skills from Najeonjang Kim Bong-ryong in 1972 and Lee Sung-woon since 1980, and has been skilled in dry lacquer techniques, which is based on mosina hemp cloth.
  • 2010.8.2
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    The culture of Gyeonggi-do is based on the popular culture, but it also incorporates a luxurious and refined court culture. Sandae nori is a cultural heritage that shows this well.

    Toegyewon Sandae Nori refers to mask Nori, which is handed down in Toegyewon, Namyangju, Gyeonggi Province. In the Joseon Dynasty, Toegyewon was the center of transportation and was a place where commerce developed. As the road to Hanyang was frequented by people, Sandae nori Yeonhui was popular.

    The performers were supported by merchants and rich people by setting the time for their regular performances, and based on this, they toured other regions.

    Toegyewon Sandae Nori consists of a dance and a play that dances and sings to the accompaniment of music, just like other masquerade plays, and consists of a total of 12 chapters.

    Songs are the sounds of the Sunsori system based on Gyeonggi folk songs, and include 'Youth Song', 'Changbu Taryeong' and 'Baekgu Taryeong'. The dance moves are largely divided into the dance of grandeur and the dance of sesame, and there are fifteen basic dances. The dance line is bold and powerful.

    In common with the Bon Sandae Nori, a fallen nobleman, servants, old men, grandmothers, and concubines appear to reveal the reality, satire, and laughter. The masks of Toegyewon Sandae nori were made by carving logs, compared to the masks of Yangju Sandae nori as the main ingredient of the masks of Toegyewon Sandae nori are unique.

    In particular, among the 16 Sandae Nori masks made around 1865, the words "Gyeongbok Palace Joyeong Time Using Toegyewon-ri Sandaedogam in Yangju-gun" are engraved on the back of the mask, enhancing the historical and cultural value of Toegyewon Sandae Nori.
  • 1979.8.3
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    Nongak is the music played by farmers when they squeeze their dure and play percussion instruments such as kkwaenggwari, Jingo, Jango, and drum. According to the purpose of performing nongak, the types can be divided into Dangsan Gut, Madang Bapgi, Gulip Gut, Duregut, Pangut, Kiuje Gut, and Baegut. If classified according to regional characteristics, they are divided into Gyeonggi Nongak, Yeongdong Nongak, Honam Jwado Nongak, Gyeongnam Nongak, and Gyeongbuk Nongak.

    The nongak of Jeollanam-do can be largely divided into Jwa-do, Udo, and Seobuan-gut, based on the manner of the procession, costume, and musicality. Among them, Jwa-do-gut is a nongak developed in the mountainous region of northeastern Jeollanam-do, and has the characteristics of excellent group play and fast rhythm and movement. So, while focusing on the top play, the bottom play Goodpap gives the impression that it is light and continuous. Hwasun Hancheon Nongak belonged to Jwa-do-gut and was handed down about 200 years ago. Chagut is particularly well developed.

    Currently, Noh Seung-dae is recognized as the holder of entertainment in Hwacheon Nongak.