K-Cultural Heritage 50 Page > Little Korea

K-CULTURAL HERITAGE

Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 1985.12.1
    designated date
    Nongyo is a song sung by farmers to forget their fatigue and improve their efficiency from hard and busy work, also known as wild songs or farming sounds.

    Yecheon Tongmyeong Nongyo is believed to have been started during the mid-Joseon Dynasty, as a farming song sung by farmers in Tongmyeong-ri, Yecheon-eup, Yecheon-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do to relieve their hardships caused by hard labor when planting rice every year.

    It consists of <Abu Reisuna나, which is sung during planting, <Sound of Help도, <Sound of Baby Maggie기, <Sound of Boss상, <Sound of Bangae Sori·, <Sound of Euyong Sori이용, and 부르는Bonghei이, which is sung on the way home from rice paddy. There are also "Samsamgi Song," "Bettle Song," and "Dohaetagi" sung by women.

    Yecheon Tongmyeong Nongyo is characterized by the fact that both the sound of rice planting and rice paddies are slow, long-pull notes are written, and that when the song is held and received, the end of the front sound and the front of the back sound partially overlap, creating a dual creative effect.

    Yecheon Tongmyeong Nongyo has a rural taste and simple taste, and the song and lyrics are local.
  • 1988.12.1
    designated date
    "Taepyeongmu" is a dance that expresses the peace of the country and the meaning of honoring the peaceful era. The origin is not clear, but it is known as one of the dances that Han Seong-jun, a dancer and master of the 1900s, reconstructed the Gyeonggi shamanic dance.

    Men and women dress up as kings and queens to show the grandeur and splendor of the royal court style, while dance troupes are more complex and demanding than other dance troupes, such as Jinso, Nakgoong, Turbulim, and Chullpuri. Along with the change of rhythm, the techniques of treading, such as walking on the knees, walking on the knees, and bending the heels, show a flamboyant yet non-quick temperance.

    The movements are delicate and elegant, and each movement is theft. The dance of the mobile Anryu is a mixture of common simpleness and aristocratic sentiment, harmonizing excitement, style, and solemnity, and the dance of the Gangseonyeongryu is solemn and solemn, and the dance of the Gangsunyeongryu is graceful and splendid, giving you a sense of elegance and splendor in the dance.

    Taepyeongmu is the most artful footwork dance in Korea. It expresses the characteristics of folk dance well and is highly artistic compared to the world.
  • 1989.12.1
    designated date
    Jeju Island is also known as Samdado Island because it has a lot of wind, stones, and women. It is widely known as a treasure trove of folk songs, as many folk songs are also handed down depending on the type of occupation.

    Folk folk songs and popular folk songs sung in Jeju Island are divided into various types of occupations of people singing folk songs, such as farming, fishing, work singing, ritual singing, women's songs and children's songs, and popular miscellaneous songs.

    The sounds of farming include "Sadae Sori" and "Stamping Sori," while the sounds of fishing include "Sound of rowing" and "Sound of Anchovy Frying." Some of the sounds you sing while you work include Whale Sound, Phlegm, and Bangat-Rolling Sound, while others include Haengsang-Sori, DalguSori, and Flower Flame. Women's songs and children's songs include "Song of Living in the House," "Baby Funny," and "Song of the Mother." Some of the miscellaneous items are Odolttogi, Yi Hongtaryeong, and Seowo Jetsori.

    Jeju folk songs are noteworthy in that there are many labor songs sung while working, and folk songs sung by women and women are common. Songs also use a lot of unusual Jeju dialect, and are more sad than folk songs in Gyeonggi Province. Jeju folk songs express a feeling of regret, creating a different atmosphere.

    ※ Recognized as a holding organization without holders: 2017.4.3(National Intangible Cultural Property Jeju Folk Song Preservation Association)
  • 2013.12.2
    designated date
    The Boryeong area has been famous for producing excellent stones called Nampo Oseok since ancient times.

    Nampo Oseok was used as a monument to preserve writing for a long time due to its good stone quality, and about half of the royal tombs of the Joseon Dynasty were made of Nampo Oseok, and today the president's tombstone also used Nampo Oseok. As a result, the stone industry was developed more than anywhere else in Boryeong, and excellent stone burials were found.

    Currently, there are many stone statues in the Boryeong area, including Goseoksan Mountain (1955~ ) from Ungcheon, Boryeong, which is an excellent stonesmith in Boryeong, and produces many excellent stone crafts, including statues of Buddha, and was designated as an intangible cultural asset.

    Goseoksan Mountain, which was first introduced as a stone craftsman in 1968 with Jeong Jong-seop as a teacher, has a splendid history of winning the best sculpture award at an exhibition of Buddhist art, winning a prize in the stone crafts section of a national functional competition, selecting a master of Korean stone crafts, and designating a cultural heritage repair technician.
  • 2013.12.2
    designated date
    - Gut can be largely divided into Seotgut and Sajeonggut, which means a general rite performed by a shaman, and Sajingut is also called Sajanggyeong, Dokgyeong, and Yangbangut, which are given by the name due to the local and behavioral characteristics of the shaman sitting and reading the scriptures.

    Sajingut is presumed to have been formed by mutual relations with other religions such as Buddhism and Taoism. It has a long history as a branch of Korean shamanism. In particular, Naepo Sajingut, including Seosan and Taean, has a strong tradition, making it a distinctive Sajanggut shamanistic area in Korea.

    - Naepo Sitting Gut has been inherited to the present day with a deep influence on the origins of the northwestern part of Chungnam (Naepo area) and folk (musok) culture such as Pungoje Festival and Sansinje, which borders the west coast of South Chungcheong Province, and is designated as an intangible cultural asset of South Chungcheong Province for preservation and management due to its value, including the transmission and utilization of local folk culture.
  • 1994.12.5
    designated date
    Jindo Hongju can find its origin in Soju, which came from the Yuan Dynasty of China during the Goryeo Dynasty. Therefore, scholars argue that the Mongolians who came to destroy Sambyulcho may have introduced the secret method of lowering Hongju, but it is hard to say that the herb used as a ingredient was introduced to Hongju using raw medicine because it is difficult to grow in the devastated Mongo land.

    Since the late Goryeo Dynasty, our ancestors have been making and drinking soju called hanju or baekju in any province. Originally, soju was used only in the royal court, but it seems to have gradually become popular with the working class.

    In this process, the wisdom of adding medicine to soju was developed, and the liquor was developed into weak soju or hansoju, giving birth to famous alcoholic beverages that were unique to each region. Jindo Hongju is also thought to have developed into a local silk.

    The process of making is three stages of the manufacture, desalination and fermentation of yeast and distillation. Hongju is a liquor with a high alcohol content of 40 percent or more that helps digestion, and has a high alcohol content of 40 percent or more, which makes you feel drunk even with a small amount without much stimulation in your throat, and has the effect and characteristic of being able to do cocktails without a hangover.

    Jindo Hongju had been generally manufactured in a well-to-do house until liberation, but since then, due to severe alcohol control, women and women who have a harder life than rich families secretly manufactured it as a means of living, and the secret recipe has been passed down to this day.

    Currently, the Jindo Traditional Hongju Preservation Society, which was founded in 1993, preserves, develops, and industrializes, and is inherited by Heo Hwa-ja, the holder of functions.
  • 1994.12.5
    designated date
    Nongak is the music played by farmers when they squeeze their dure and play percussion instruments such as kkwaenggwari, Jing, Janggu, and drum.

    The nongak of Jeollanam-do can be largely classified as Jwa-do-gut, Udo-gut, and Seodo-an-gut based on the composition, attire, and musicality. Among them, Book Coastal Gut is a nongak performed in Geumsan-myeon, Wando and Jindo areas in Goheung-gun, which are located in the South Sea and the Southwest Sea, and Gilgut is different from that of the land and has a unique identity that does not belong to any region, such as Jwa-do and U-do, where the ritual is centered.

    Goheung Wolpo Nongak is a type of Seohaean Gut, which is said to have been started by playing Nongak to boost the morale of the troops during the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592. The composition of nongak consists of Deokseokgi, Nonggi, Nongak, Yeonggi, Soe, Soe, Nongbu, Jing, Janggu, Buk, Buggu, Sogo, Daeposu, and Yangban.

    It is characterized by the complete preservation of the Mungut and the strong religious character associated with the rite, and the boy's role as a "farm farmer" is outstanding, with lively dance and craftsmanship and not seen in other regions. Currently, Choi Byung-tae is recognized as the holder of entertainment in Goheung Wolpo Nongak.
  • 2011.12.6
    designated date
    Songseo literally refers to the sound of reading a book. Originally, reading sounds were used in Chinese Classics Schools. Reading ability is more like a shading or melodic singing depending on what kind of book you read. Among them, some of the musical melodies are sung by professional singers.

    Sichang(singing poetry) or Songseo(recitation) by experts is limited to extremely limited articles. "Kwansan Yungma" is representative in the current traditional music in Sichang, and in the case of Songseo, there is "Jeokbyeokbu" left by Seodo Myeongchang Kim Jung-yeon, and "Chupunggambyeolgok," and "Samsulgi," passed down by Muk gye-wol. In addition, Yulchang materials are still left such as "Gyeongpo Daesi" and "Sipjaegyeong-yeong" sung by Kim Deok-soon. These poems originated from the recitation of Chinese poetry, and Songseo is based on Chinese reading and is a musical composition made by professional entertainers.

    Meanwhile, Songseo passed down by ordinary people through Seodang education are being passed down in another line. Songseo and Yulchang originated from the past when scholars recited the lyrics to study Chinese characters. Songseo and Yulchang of the general public are sung in a song in Chinese poems or classics, which were sung to the rhythm when reading in Seodang. In the case of reciting a poem in 5 of 7 rhythm, it is also known as Sichang. Songseo is more like a Seodo style sound with simple Yuljo giving mournful tone, and Yulchang has a normal consonant that indicates the high, low, and long sound, allowing anyone to make the same note.

    Songseo and Yulchang designated as cultural assets of Gyeonggi-do may be regarded as cases that include both the sound of experts and the transmission of ordinary people. Han Byung-ok, the owner of the school, died on August 3, 2019, and Lee Seok-ki, an assistant instructor for successor training, is working on performances and transmission activities.
  • 1964.12.7
    designated date
    Jongmyo Jeryeak refers to music played using dance, songs, and musical instruments when performing ancestral rites (Jongmyo Jerye) at a shrine (Jongmyo) that honors kings and queens of the Joseon Dynasty.

    In each procedure of the Jongmyo rite, a song called Jongmyo movement is sung to praise the virtues of ancestors, focusing on the music of Bo Tae-pyeong and Jeong Dae-up. While the Jongmyo Jeryeak is played, it is accompanied by a literary figure, Bo Taepyeongjimu (honor of the kings' virtues) and a martial artist, Jeong Dae-upjimu (praise of the kings' exploits).

    Jongmyo Jeryeak was originally created for use in the royal banquet in 1447 (the 29th year of King Sejong's reign), and has been handed down to this day after being repaired in accordance with the 10th year of King Sejong's reign (1464). Eleven songs by Bo Tae-pyeong and 11 by Jung Dae-up are played at the Jongmyo Daeje, which is held on the first Sunday of May every year.

    Jongmyo Jeryeak is the essence of court music, which combines instrumental performances, songs and dances of the Joseon Dynasty, and has a unique style and beauty that can not be seen in other countries while well showing our cultural traditions and characteristics.

    The National Intangible Cultural Property No. 1 Jongmyo Jeryeak is currently listed as a representative UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
  • 1964.12.7
    designated date
    Yangju Byeolsandae Nori is one of the Sandae Dogam performed by itinerary troupes based in Seoul and the capital region. Consisting of dance, pantomime, well-wishing remarks, and acrobatics, it originated about 200 years ago and came to be performed during holidays and seasonal festivals such as the Buddha’s Birthday, Dano Festival, and Chuseok (Harvest Moon Festival on the 15th day of the eighth lunar month) and during ritual prayers for rainfall. Yangju Byeolsandae Nori is known to have originated from the mask dances performed by the Sajikgol Ttakttagipae group in Seoul. Each performance consists of eight episodes, which were often preceded by a parade in which performers wearing masks would dance around a town playing music, and hold a rite consisting of prayers for the safety of its residents. The main event was essentially a satire of Korean society with 32 characters representing different social groups and stereotypes, including depraved monks, impoverished aristocrats, shamans, buffoons, servants, and commoners.
  • 1964.12.7
    designated date
    Namsadang Nori was played by Namsadangpae, a wandering entertainer consisting of at least 40 men, including the puppet (head) from the late Joseon Dynasty to the 1920s, mainly for the working class.

    Namsadang Nori was a folk play that was born naturally in the common people's society, and it was not free to perform in the village due to being persecuted by aristocrats.

    Namsadangpae consists of a hwaju, who plans a performance at the peak of the puppet, a dungsoe, a playmaker, a rookie, an older monk, and a backman, but Namsadang Nori consists of pungmul, Verna, Salpan, Eoreum, Deobogi, and Dulmi.

    Pungmul is a kind of nongak nori, and it can be seen as a play to attract spectators by announcing the start of the performance.

    Verna, similar to Chinese dish spinning, is a feat of spinning a wheel or bowl to a stick or a pipe.

    Salpan is a land talent like today's tumbling, which means that if you do well, you'll die if you don't do well.

    Eoreum was used only in Namsadangpae because it was as difficult as walking on ice as walking cautiously, but more and more people began to use it.

    Seotboogi is a kind of mask play with a mask on. Dulmi, which extends to puppet shows, is called puppet play, Park Cheomji play, and Hongdongji play, depending on the important characters in the puppet show. In particular, puppet play has been handed down to this day, and it is of great historical significance that Namsadang play is the only traditional Korean puppet play.

    Namsadang Nori, which originated from the working class and was performed for the working class, was used to criticize and solve the immorality of the Korean and aristocratic communities that were treated poorly by the society at that time and to awaken public awareness.
  • 2009.12.7
    designated date
    San Joaeng is a musical instrument created by the originality of the Korean people, and Sanjo is also a music that can be designated as a World Heritage Site just like Pansori. Sanjo, which is rooted in shamanism and pansori, retains the history and tradition of the Korean people, and has become highly professional and artistic through the formation and development process of Sanjo.

    Currently, the Ajaeng Sanjo is not designated in any city or province in the country, and Park Yong-tae's Sanjo, based in Busan, has very few people who wish to be transferred due to the lack of a base population. In addition, due to economic and learning difficulties, effective transfer of young people, including early transfer, is not possible, and preservation is in danger.

    Park Yong-tae is a first-generation apprentice to Han Il-seop, the founder of Ajaeng Sanjo. Park Yong-tae's genealogy, along with other masters of the same-literature Korean classical music, is clear and the legitimacy of the melody is beyond question. It is no exaggeration to say that his musical skills and standards are unrivaled, and he is performing extensively on stages across the country, as well as in Busan and the Yeongnam region.

    Park Yong-tae's "Ajaeng Sanjo" (Park Dae-sung-ryu) has a lot of Ujo-seong rhythms, unlike ordinary mountains. In other words, the ordinary mountain bird is composed mainly of surfactant rhythms, giving the impression of pleading and purring, while the Park Dae-seong's Ajaeng Sanjo has a strong and magnificent feeling. This musical feeling is in line with the musical characteristics of Menarijo, a musical characteristic of Gyeongsang-do. Therefore, the Ajaeng Sanjo of Park Yong-tae (Park Dae-seongryu) can be seen as having enough of the characteristics of life of the people of Gyeongsang-do.

    Currently, he is transferring from a new building to a new building located in the former Dongnae area of the Dongnae-gu Hot Spring Park. Dongnae Kwon Bun was a popular attraction where master singers from all over the country gathered to inherit the tradition of Korean traditional music in Busan after Japanese colonial era.
  • 1999.12.7
    designated date
    Nongyo is a song that is sung to forget fatigue and improve efficiency while working on rice paddies and fields, also called wild songs or farming sounds. Nongyo, one of the folk songs, is sung individually or collectively, and the song may vary depending on the region.

    There is a theory that the name "Maddle" originated from the Korean word "Maddeul" in Sanggye-dong, which was raised by releasing horses in fields, and that this area originated from the pure Korean word "Maddeul." The contents include the sound of planting rice and the sound of rice paddies. The sound of non-maegi is composed of the sound of the durucha when first tied with a ho-mi, the water parsley when tied with two layers, and the sound of the kkeokumjo, which is sung excitedly in the evening at the end of the day. In addition, Bangataryeong, Nennell Sangsadiya, and Ouya-ddeul-ddeul-ddeul-dda are sometimes called.

    In Gangwon-do, where there are far more fields than rice paddies, the sound of rice planting or field farming was called Menari, which was spread through Pocheon, Gyeonggi-do, and a different style of folk song was formed. Therefore, Madeul Nongyo is a folk song that has been influenced by agricultural songs in Gangwon-do based on agricultural songs in Gyeonggi-do, and should be inherited well even in the current area, which consists of apartment complexes.

    On December 7, 1999, Kim Wan-su was recognized as the holder, and the holding organization was the Madeul Nongyo Preservation Association.

    bbb※※ For detailed information on the above cultural assets, please refer to the Seoul Metropolitan Government Department of Historical and Cultural Heritage (202-2133-2616). </bb
  • 1992.12.8
    designated date
    Shijochang refers to singing a song with the lyrics of Sijo poem (Korean traditional poetry), also known as Sijo-si, Sidae-dan-ga.

    The oldest record is a poem written by Lee Se-chun, a scholar of the "Seokbukjip" (pen-name: Seokbukjip) during the reign of King Yeongjo (r. 1724-1776). In the "Yu Yeji" and "Gura Cheolsageumjabo" published during the reign of King Sunjo (r. 1800-1834), Sijo's sheet music first appears. After that, due to the influence of the song, the composition of the poem was distributed and divided into local characteristics.

    Naepoje sijo is a shijochang in northwestern Chungcheongnam-do. Naepo is presumed to have been named because it refers to Seosan, Dangjin, Yesan and Hongseong in Chungcheong Province.

    The scale is composed of three-symmetric tones (a sad and mournful tone) and five-syllable tones (a clear and vigorous tone). The rhythm is not raised in the middle to maintain a sense of stability, and the end is dropped to leave a lingering impression, not falsetto, and a lot of decoration is used. Because they play a temporary instrument with a long or knee rhythm without an instrument, five beats are reduced in the end of the long and medium length.

    Naepoje Sijo is a valuable piece of music that people have enjoyed singing for a long time.