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K-CULTURAL HERITAGE

Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 1998.9.21
    designated date
    Among the relics related to embroidery, the oldest are the chains of short pieces excavated from Hwangnamdaechong Tomb in Gyeongju during the Silla Dynasty and the Royal Tomb of King Muryeong in the Baekje Dynasty.

    Although the artifact was excavated in short pieces, it is a rare artifact that shows that the most commonly used technique in East Asia was used during the Three Kingdoms Period. In addition, the Four Seasons of Embroidery, which are presumed to have been the Goryeo Dynasty, include Byeongpung and Amita Yeorado. The Amitabha Buddha was a Buddha who led the souls of the dead to paradise while staying in the paradise, and it is estimated that Buddhism flourished greatly in the Goryeo Dynasty due to the belief of the patriots.

    During the Joseon Dynasty, the number was embroidered on the wardrobe, red robe, robe, rank badge, and rank badge. There are very few examples of embroidered dresses, embroidered skirts, jeogori, and incense burners. Buddhist embroidery has lyrics, table manners, and suBul. Among them, Yongmunja Sutak, No. 244 of Important Folklore Cultural Heritage, housed in the Seongbo Museum of Seonamsaeng, is highly regarded for its value. It is embroidered on a very large scale with special techniques and colorful colors.

    Hwang Soon-hee, a master of embroidery, was born in Yeocheon, South Jeolla Province, in 1949 and was taught by her mother by adding her hobby to embroidery during the elementary school's lyrics class. At the age of 20, he studied Oriental embroidery at the embroidery lab in Jeongneung, Seoul, and then studied it to Han Yeong-hwa (currently the holder of intangible cultural assets of Seoul). Some of the works include Yongbo and Hunbae, Ilwol Oakdo, Sipjangsaengdo, Hwarot and Sui Norigae. In addition, many excellent works were produced through a long study of royal embroidery.
  • 1998.9.21
    Designated date
    A brush, ink, paper, and inkstone are some of the oldest writing tools. Relics from the Three Kingdoms Period were also excavated in Korea, but they may have been used before then. The dignity of the inkstone is determined by the quality of the stone making the inkstone and the level of carving on the inkstone.

    In general, the stone of the inkstone has a low hardness, making it impossible to make lively sculptures. What helped overcome this limitation was Danyang's magnet 石, owned by Shin Geun-sik, the owner of the rice paddy field. The stone is unique and beautiful in color, but it is two to three degrees stronger in hardness than other inkstone, allowing it to be carved in three dimensions.

    Magnetized inkstone is practical. Other stone-capped inkstones are carved with stones, and when the stone eats water, it becomes weaker, causing more residue, and as time goes by, the stone bursts and splits. But despite its firmness, the magnet grinds its prey finely, and no dregs occur. In particular, even if water is stored for several days, it is so water-resistant that it does not permeate, that it does not crack or burst even after decades or hundreds of years.

    Shin Geun-sik started his family business when he was 17 years old and ended his apprenticeship period, which usually takes three years. His works vary in size and shape. There are many original works such as dragon, turtle, and horseback riding.

    Also, Shin Geun-sik's works give the same impression as woodwork. The reddish colors and engraved patterns are delicate and soft, making them look like woodblocks and pasting them.
  • 1998.9.21
    Designated date
    When a funeral is held due to mourning in the village, the remains of the deceased are carried out as bier. At this time, the sound of the bier is the sound of the bier, and when the singer shakes the key and picks up the sound of the front, the patrons carrying the bier get the backstabbing. It starts with a slow-pronounced long sound, and when the bier leaves Donggu, it sings a little faster, and when it goes up a steep mountain path, it sings a fast and powerful sound. After arriving at Zhangjiyue, the song sung in the process of ironing out the mound is the sound of hoedaji. When one of the singers chokes up the sound, the rest of the people mince the sashimi while receiving the backbiting.

    Yangju Sangyeosori consists of a long sound and a jajin sound. The long Sangyeo sound is a slow gutgeori rhythm, and the back sound is 'uh-huh-uh-huh-uhri Neomchaeoha'.

    The Jajin Bonusori is a voluntarily gutgeori rhythm, and the back sound is briefly 'oh oh oh ho'. The tune of Sangyeosori in Yangju region is menaritori.

    The sound of a hoedaji includes a variety of sounds. The long dalgosori is played by a long gutgeori rhythm and the back sounds are "Ehuri dalgu" and steps on the dirt with their feet. Afterwards, the sound of self-hearing and Gyeongtori tune was called. Hoesimgok or Chohanga are sometimes sung in the rhythm of the dalgu sound. The following sounds of floriculture, boss's sound, body sound, and chirping sound are the same as the agricultural songs called gimmaegi. In the meantime, the lunar calendar ends with the sound and the mound is completed. The sound of bier tea includes not only mourning for the dead, but also labor-critical nature of holding funerals with neighbors.

    The sound of Yangju Bierhoi Daji was activated in 1995 when the village's youth formed the Bier and Hoedaji Sori Preservation Society and the nation's first training center. Currently, Hwang Jung-seop, the owner of the festival, is performing various performances and is striving to win the victory.
  • 1998.9.21
    Designated date
    Yangpyeong bier and hoe daji are funeral rituals that are handed down in Yangdong-myeon, Yangpyeong-gun, Gyeonggi-do, ranging from a song sung by people who perform fortune-telling and consolidate their graves.

    The sound of the bier is sung during the funeral process of carrying a coffin containing the body on a bier and carrying it from the house to the Jangji-dong site. On the night before the contest, the bier carries an empty bier and the bier members sing and play, which is called a "stand-up." On the morning of the birth day, after the funeral ceremony, the bier bowed twice with the bier on, and then went back and forth three times singing a long bier, which is said to be "fit their feet." When the bier went out, he used the drum along with the trick. When the seonsor shakes the knack and picks up the sound, the drummer plays the drum and follows. When a bier leaves the house, it sings a long bier sound, "Eogeum-cha-sori," and when it goes fast, it sings a voluntary bier-sori, "Eo-hwa-sori." In this area, bier was said to have sounded long when climbing steep mountain paths or crossing narrow single-wood bridges.

    When the bier arrives at the burial site, it digs into Gwangjung , a hole where the body can be buried, and goes down the hall. After that, he poured soil and sashimi and did hoe-daji three times, which is said to be "hardening up the three senses." The sound called in this process is the sound of a hoedaji.

    They sing long dalgoo sounds, followed by voluntary dalgoo sounds. The long hoedaji sound is hit by the slow Gutgeori rhythm and the back sound is received as Voluntary dalgu sound is given to the rhythm of Jajan Gutgeori and the back sound is given to the rhythm of Jajan Gutgeori. At the third end, the song ends with a song titled "The Bird Chasing" in a Menaritorian tune on the Jajin Gutgeori rhythm.

    Yangpyeong's bier and hoe-da-ji sound is meaningful in that it reveals the characteristics of the eastern part of Gyeonggi Province. Yangpyeong Bier and Hoedaji Sori Preservation Society is formed, and since the death of Choi Won-san, the artistic owner, Choi Bong-ju, the head of the conservation committee, is currently working on various events and competitions to win the victory.
  • 2015.9.22
    designated date
    Arirang, a national intangible cultural asset, is one of the most widely shared cultural symbols and a song that contains the sentiments of the Korean people.

    In addition, Arirang is a simple and natural expression of the people's joys and sorrows and aspirations, and has been passed down for generations, adding vitality to its value in history, artistry, and academic value as an intangible cultural asset.

    ※ 2012.12.5. Enlisted on UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

    ※ Arirang is a national intangible cultural asset that does not recognize certain holders or organizations in that Arirang is widely passed down across regions and generations and applied to modern times.
  • 2016.9.22
    designated date
    On September 22, 2016, it was designated as Chungcheongnam-do Intangible Cultural Property No.52 (owner Yoon Ju-yeol).

    A loom is a straight line for weaving hemp, silk, cotton, ramie, etc. It is not known exactly when it was made and used, and most of it is made of wood, making it impossible to preserve the long term.

    The study of the ancient rectangle shows the form and manipulation of the rectifier through the analysis of the parts of the straight line, the straight line drawing, and the fabric, which are unearthed piece by piece.

    Although it is essential for Seocheon Hansan ramie weaving (National designated cultural heritage and UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity), the demand for looms has decreased due to a sharp drop in ramie production compared to the past. In the face of the danger of extinction, the production technology of traditional looms has been designated as an intangible cultural asset of the provincial government to inherit and preserve traditional cultural technologies.

    The Beetle Market first began repairing the Beetle in 1962 based on carpentry technology. In 1982, the company produced the traditional loom in earnest, and worked on the supply and education of the traditional loom.

    Beetlejang can not only make traditional looms, but also make all the accessories that go into traditional looms, such as body, body houses, malco, beige, loomchae, seondari, drum and drum needles.
  • 2005.9.23
    designated date
    Hanjijang refers to a craftsman skilled in the art of making traditional paper, hanji, from the bark of mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki) trees and mulberry paste. Making hanji requires great skill and extensive experience. The mulberry bark has to be collected, steamed, boiled, dried, peeled, boiled again, beaten, mixed, strained, and dried; 99 processes are said to be required to get the paper in one’s hands, so the final process was also called baekji, meaning “one hundred paper.” Korean hanji was so famous back in the Goryeo Dynasty that the Chinese called the best-quality paper Goryeoji (literally meaning “Goryeo Paper”). Sun Mu from the Song Dynasty of China lavished Goryeo paper with praises in his book Jilin leishi (Things on Korea), saying that it was white and glossy and lovely. In the Joseon Dynasty, from the time of King Taejong, the state began to oversee paper production, establishing the office called Jojiseo (Paper Manufactory). In modern times, however, the change in architectural styles and housing environment and the import of paper have led to the virtual disappearance of traditional hanji. Today, because of high production costs, hanji is made with pulp imported from Southeast Asia rather than mulberry bark. To keep the art of hanji alive and pass it on to the next generation, the Cultural Heritage Administration has designated hanji making an Important Intangible Cultural Heritage.
  • 2002.9.25
    designated date
    Onggijang Bae Yo-seop (Residence in Sinnae-dong, Jungnang-gu, 1926) is a four-generation Onggi craftsman who has continued to work as a Hanmi-Yo-Yo-Yo-Yo-Yo-Yo-Yo-Yo-Yo-Yo-Yo-Toga (meaning the Bae family that runs beautiful Korean kiln). It was recognized as a holder on September 25, 2002 and became an honorary holder on April 13, 2017.

    It is producing 'Puredog', which is baked without glaze or lye, which is classified as a high-quality onggi.

    The word "pure" is the pure Korean word for "purple," and poison refers to a large bowl with a pear.

    "Pure Dogg" is a bowl made with salt, one of the state-run items, and was used as a Buddhist item for Buddhist temples given to the royal family or royal family in Korea.

    Bae Yo-seop's great-great-grandfather, Pyo Dae-gyeom (Francisco), joined the Catholic Church in the Chungcheong-do region, where Catholic faith first spread to Korea in the late Joseon Dynasty, and served as a lay leader in Dangjin, Chungcheong-do.

    As many Onggi artisans did, they began to burn onggi in the mountains with their families to avoid the persecution of Catholicism by Heungseon Daewongun.

    The martyrdom of Pyo Dong-gyeom (Francisco) in 1800 and his eldest son Bae Cheong-mo (Augustino) in 1829 while transcribing Catholic books led to the production of pottery as a family business by Bae Dae-bong, his third son.

    Bae lived in Eumseong, Chungcheong-do, hiding his family's martyrdom, and learned how to make Puredog, the best onggi technique of the time.

    Since then, Bae Dae-chun, the son of Bae Dae-bong, has been passed down for three generations, and Bae Bae Bae-seok, the son of Bae Dae-chun, has been handed down for four generations. The baeuiseok Japanese Icheon to the South of France and moderate damage, made a rapid demand after the onggi remote areas to production.

    Bae's eldest son, Bae Yo-seop, moved from Icheon to Yeongdeungpo, Seoul, and started his family business as a fifth generation from 1942 with his father Bae Bae-seok at the recommendation of his grandmother.

    In 1955, he moved to the Onggi branch in Sinnae-dong, Jungnang-gu, Seoul, and opened a Onggi Onggi restaurant called <Hanmi Yoyup> with his father, and carried out production activities while maintaining its own onggi style, mainly in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province.

    When his father died in 1968, when he was 42 years old, he took the initiative in operating the workshop. In the early 1980s, he was able to produce onggi mainly in the era of increased demand for onggi during the Korean War, but in the early 1980s, his second son Bae Yeon-sik and his family business, Puredog, were re-produced.

    It went through as many trials and errors as it had not been produced for a while and was designated as an intangible cultural asset of Seoul in recognition of its achievements.

    After the relocation of the workshop to Songcheon-ri, Namyangju, Gyeonggi-do in 1992 due to the development of an apartment complex in Sinnae-dong, Jungnang-gu, Seoul, Bae Yo-seop's second son Bae Yeon-sik worked on the Puregi.

    'Pure Dogi' means 'Pure' in 'Purple' and 'Pottery', which is completed at a high temperature of 1300 degrees without glaze or lye on the surface using pure yellow soil, and is further developed in materials and plasticization methods than the existing Puredogg.

    It was developed as a rural housing complex around the Songcheon-ri workshop in Namyangju, Gyeonggi Province, and moved the workshop to Seosin-myeon, Hwaseong-si, Gyeonggi-do in 2009. Now Bae Yo-seop's second son Bae Yeon-sik runs the Korea-U.S. Yobae City Toga for the sixth generation, while his granddaughter Bae Eun-kyung and Bae Sae-rom, who are in charge of seven family businesses, run the Puregi Institute.

    bbb※※ For detailed information on the above cultural assets, please refer to the Seoul Metropolitan Government Department of Historical and Cultural Heritage (202-2133-2616). </bb
  • 2003.9.25
    designated date
    Dancheong refers to the act of painting buildings, sculptures, Buddhist paintings, and crafts using pigments. Therefore, the base material is diverse, including stone, clay wall, wood, iron paste, leather, and paper, and dancheong, which is most representative of which is colored by horses or wooden architecture that encompasses the concept of western painting, is painted on subsidiary materials. The role of dancheong is especially important in wooden buildings. It is painted on wood or walls of buildings to prevent other corrosion and dryness in rain, wind, and climate change to increase durability. The patterns of Dancheon vary widely depending on the type of architectural materials and the nature of the building, respectively. Dancheongjang is not just painting buildings or painting patterns, but also producing Buddhist paintings such as tangs that require painting skills.

    On September 25, 2003, Yang Yong-ho was recognized as the holder of the event.

    ※ For detailed information on the above cultural assets, please refer to the Seoul Metropolitan Government Department of Historical and Cultural Heritage (202-2133-2616).
  • 1969.9.27
    designated date
    Seodo-sori refers to folk songs and japga, which were handed down in Hwanghae-do and Pyeongan-do provinces (Seo-do areas), and the exact timing of when the song began to be sung is unknown.

    Seodo-sori is composed of Pyeongan-do folk songs, Hwanghae-do folk songs, Seodo japga, a poem reciting Chinese poems, and Baebangi-gut, which has a dramatic composition.

    In Pyeongan-do folk songs, there are water-seam-ga, woven water-seam-ga, gin-ari, jaja-ri, and Anju-ae-seong. The most famous water-seam-ga is the water-seom-ga, which recited the sorrow as a complaint when the people of Seodo-gun were blocked from public office since the early Joseon Dynasty.

    Pyeongan-do's sound generally consists of five notes: re, mi, sol, la, and do, which form the framework of melody by going down a full five degrees from the shaking sound 'la'. In general, the editorial is long and the rhythm is not constant, so it is characterized by proper arrangement of the editorial.

    In the folk songs of Hwanghae-do, there are Ginnanbongga, Jajeonnbongga, Byeongsinnanbongga, private Nanbongga, Sanyeombul, Jajinyeombul, and Monggeumpotaryeong, which are famous for their nangbongga and wildfires.

    The sound of Hwanghae-do represents the general melody of Seodo, along with the sound of Pyeongan-do, but it is slightly different in terms of its melody progress. Pyeongan-do also has a certain rhythm compared to folk songs, and is bright and lyrical.

    Seodo japga is a sit-down sound that opposes the introduction of Seodo, and there are Gongmyeongga, private Gongmyeongga, Chohanga, Jejeon, and Chupung Gambyeolgok, among which Gongmyeongga is famous. Seodojapga has a long editorial, and the rhythm is irregular according to the embroidery of the song. There is something in common that ends with a deep-seated attitude when closing the end.

    The rhythms of Seodo sound, commonly called "Sushimgatori," are usually played from the top, the top notes are dropped, the middle notes are shaking violently, and the bottom notes are stretched straight, making it sad to sing these sounds in a relaxed.

    The singing style of Seodo Sori is a bit unique, but since there are Sokcheong and Bongcheong, Sokcheong uses a sound that is pulled with the inner voice and the head and the back of the main office.

    Baebangi Gut is a music that is often compared to pansori in Namdo, and a singer narrates Baebangi's story in a humorous way by mixing folk songs, radish songs, and jaedam based on Seodo's basic musical grammar in line with Janggu's accompaniment.

    Seodo-sori is a sound that has been handed down by the people of Seodo, who have been living in a harsh climate adjacent to the continent, along with the northern immigrants, and their living emotions are also well reflected in the songs.
  • 2001.9.27
    designated date
    Japga means song, which is a traditional song of upper-class culture, song that is not refined compared to sijo, and song of lower-class culture that is miscellaneous or vulgar. This is a term that is different from that of a genre that played a part in Korean pop songs along with Gyeonggi-do, and refers to a japga (subga) created by professional singers such as clowns and Sadangpae in the late Joseon Dynasty.

    Originally, Japga was formed and flourished at the end of the Joseon Dynasty, but was relegated to Western-style songs around 1830. Therefore, Japga is a genre of literature that marks the end of the Joseon Dynasty, and it is considered a transitional genre that connects the present and the past.

    남도잡가는 <보렴>, <화초사거리>, <육자배기>, <자진육자배기>, <흥타령>, <개구리타령>, <새타령>, <성주풀이> 등을 지칭한다.
  • 1986.9.29
    designated date
    Celadon ware refers to a person or technique that makes Goryeo porcelain represented by celadon. Although celadon, which is referred to as Goryeo monument, has been cut off in the course of time, efforts to find Goryeo monument continue. Gangjin and Buan, which are centered around Gwangju, have a reputation for their celadon pieces.

    The production process is Zeto and plastic surgery.Go through the process of sculpture, poetry, plasticity, etc. The clay process breaks stones into powder and mixes the soil. In the case of celadon, the coarse and bad clay and white clay are mixed in a ratio of 7:3. After mixing them, they go through a defensive process to remove impurities, and then they build up the clay. After the molding is over, place the crushed soil on a spinning wheel to form an object. After the molding, dry it and carve the pattern with a knife. They then grill the first batch, apply glaze, and then roast the chaebol. When grilled pork belly meat is done, the work is completed. The production equipment includes a spinning wheel, bat, earth gourd, cart, water leather, iron holtae, neckholtae, and electric knife.

    Celadon ware was designated as an intangible cultural asset to protect and transfer traditional crafts that express the beauty of Korea. Cho Ki-jung, who lives in Gwangju, continues his career through the establishment of a research institute and a work exhibition.
  • 1986.9.29
    Specified date
    Gungsijang refers to a person who has the skill and ability to make bows and arrows, who is called a mayor who makes bows and arrows.

    In China, it is said that the Korean people have excellent skills in bow making enough to call them Dongyi because they are the people of the east who make good bows and shoot well. Traditional archery has been used since the Three Kingdoms period, and archery has been in the past exam subjects since the early Joseon Dynasty. After the Imjin War (1592), it was used as a weapon of war until the gun was imported. Currently, it is called the national archery to distinguish it from the archery that came from the West.

    During the process of making bows, bamboo, mulberry, and water cones are trimmed, while bamboo and mulberry trees are bent over the fire and connected. Cut the bamboo end into V-shape, and the mulberry end is twisted in the opposite shape of V-shape, and glue it in. The core layer, which attaches the water horn to the surface and raises the tendon to the bow, works. After such a process, the drying process (purification control) is carried out for about one month. When the drying process is over, cut the cocoon. At the end of the clipping, adjust the bow's strength according to the bow user's physical strength. The Korean bow is characterized by its use of iron horns and iron core ropes, and its production tools include saws, bamboo hammers, ropes, knives, awls, tongs, wood, combs, and ribs.

    The process of making arrows is to select bamboo to be used as a body, dry it sufficiently, and then hold it straight. Work on the onnet and collar for the bow line. The ingredients are bamboo, sari tree, pheasant flag, and folk-fish bush, and the types are wood, iron, ancient, world, and leaf jeon. The arrows used today are leaf jeon made of bamboo.

    Gwangyang Gungsijang was designated as an intangible cultural asset to protect and transfer technology as a traditional craft technique. Kim Ki-ki, a functional holder living in Gwangyang, South Jeolla Province, is continuing his career.
  • 1994.9.29
    Designated date
    Bonghwa Yugi has a long history of over 500 years and is the birthplace of organic manufacturing in Korea, which introduced organic manufacturing techniques to many craftsmen across the country.

    In particular, it is said that the organic manufacturing method of Anseong was also introduced from the beacon fire. Until the early 19th century, Bonghwa Yugi's reputation was widely known throughout the country, and it was also called the "Notjumgeori." This was due to the fact that charcoal needed to melt iron was easy to produce and the abundant water in Naeseongcheon Stream was a natural location.

    However, in 1919, the ban on deforestation in the Taebaek Mountain area and the change of the times at the end of the Japanese Colonial Period were not won, and only two households are maintaining their old reputation.

    In other regions, facilities and tools have been modernized, and the trend of losing their old appearance, but the abandonment of the beacon fire still continues the old techniques of handcrafting.
  • 1994.9.29
    designated date
    Bonghwa Yugi has a long history of over 500 years and is the birthplace of organic manufacturing in Korea, which introduced organic manufacturing techniques to many craftsmen across the country.

    In particular, it is said that the organic manufacturing method of Anseong was also introduced from the beacon fire. Until the early 19th century, Bonghwa Yugi's reputation was widely known throughout the country, and it was also called the "Notjumgeori." This was due to the fact that charcoal needed to melt iron was easy to produce and the abundant water in Naeseongcheon Stream was a natural location.

    However, in 1919, the ban on deforestation in the Taebaek Mountain area and the change of the times at the end of the Japanese Colonial Period were not won, and only two households are maintaining their old reputation.

    In other regions, facilities and tools have been modernized, and the trend of losing their old appearance, but the abandonment of the beacon fire still continues the old techniques of handcrafting.