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K-CULTURAL HERITAGE

Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 2019.9.20
    Designated date
    Wonju Hanji Market reproduces and inherits the entire process of hanji production in a traditional way, and it shows regional characteristics and distinct uniqueness in the origin and use of hanji.It has been designated as an intangible cultural asset in Gangwon-do because it is recognized as a traditional culture worth preserving in terms of entertainment.
  • 2000.9.20
    Designated date
    Nongbauksi is a ritual for rain that is held in various villages including Jewon-myeon as well as nearby villages, focusing on Eojae Village in Burimyeon. If rice planting is not done because it is not raining until the summer solstice passes, the villagers are very worried and have a rain ritual to solve the drought.

    If natural disasters are not solved by human power, the ritual of rain is held as part of the community's collective consciousness to solve them through transcendent beings or various sorcery. The rain ritual is a way of living in a community where everyone in the village tries to overcome the difficulties of reality by solving the psychological conflicts that have accumulated because it does not rain and by preventing or reducing the impact of broken living rhythms.

    The rain system is generally attended by wives in their 30s and older, with men excluded. Men must carry the necessary load for the performance and leave the place. Only women sing Nongbau's songs in a melody and sound, and enter the water of the valley below Nongbau, play with their naked bodies, and end the show, which is so auspicious that the sky gives rain.
  • 1998.9.21
    Designated date
    Lacquer of everyday objects or containers not only prevents damage from moisture and insect infestation, but also helps to withstand high temperatures. As a result, lacquerware was widely used from prehistoric times, and lacquerware decorated with colorful jewels appeared as they entered the historical era. During the Unified Silla Period, lacquerware decorated with expensive Western oaks and turtle shells appeared, and in the 9th year of King Heungdeok's reign (834), a ban on luxury was imposed. Since then, the decoration of the lacquerware has been made of shells commonly found around it. In other words, najeon lacquerware became the only decorative lacquer in Korea.

    Tradition has continued so far.

    Bae Geum-yong, a native of Gochang, North Jeolla Province, started his career when he worked at a Najeon Chilgi workshop in Mapo. Later, he was taught skills by Shim Bu-gil (a holder of important intangible cultural heritage) and Choi Jun-sik, a former teacher at the Tongyeong Najeon Chilgi Training Center, a public technology school.

    He also developed his own technique of inserting patterns into metal wires, and pioneered new areas of the lacquerware. In 1988, he was selected from the Cultural Heritage Administration (CPA) and won a number of awards and special prizes at the Dong-A Crafts Festival in 1989. In addition, he has won seven other awards at the 1990 Gyeonggi-do Crafts Competition.
  • 1998.9.21
    Designated date
    Najeonchigi, also called "self-painting craft" in Korean, is one of the decorative techniques of woodworking, and refers to craftwork decorated by cutting and pasting thinly sliced shells into various forms on the surface of lacquer wood products. Its mystery and beauty are considerable because it produces various colors depending on the direction of the shell attached and the direction of the light. Above all, it has excellent preservation, and its color does not change over time.

    It takes a lot of process to complete the lacquerware. First, nothing is easy, from grinding the inner bark of abalone to cutting the edges of the abalone into a string that corrodes the edges of the abalone, cutting the skin thin with a knife, and cutting off the skin of the abalone. Then, after peeling the white bone with be applied, paint it on the white bone, beating the paint and soil to create a rough patch and a rough sketch. After that, holes are drilled into the pillow with a type, and patterns are cut with a real saw, and a paper copy is attached with a magnet and pressed with an iron. After removing the paper copy and applying it one more time, wipe off the lacquer on the pillow, and use the iron to make one work complete.The owner, Kim Jung-yeol, has mastered the technique in Tongyeong, South Gyeongsang Province, which is famous for its lacquerware, and is said to be the most Korean-style lacquerware. It was designated as the "Chilgi No. 96-19" in September 1996 and received the Presidential Commendation for its contribution to the development of traditional culture. It was also designated as an intangible cultural asset in 1998 for the first time among the Korean master Najeon Chilgi occupations.

    He's been working hard for a long time to keep the leech going. In 1999, he is constantly participating in overseas touring exhibitions as well as the first artist of the "1st Cheongju International Craft Biennale."

    In 2011, the Cheonbong Najeon Chilgi Experience Center was opened to promote the beauty of Najeon Chilgi to many tourists.
  • 1998.9.21
    designated date
    Embroidery has been widely used since ancient times as a means of ornament that allows colorful and free expression of patterns using simple tools of thread and needle. I sew threads of various colors on a needle and apply different techniques to make clothes.

    It began naturally with the addition of decorations on top of the clothes and developed with the attire of religious or ceremonial events.

    The oldest record on embroidery was written in the previous Buyeo edition of "The 30th Dong of the Three Kingdoms" which states, "The Buyeo people enjoy wearing clothes made of great gifts, great gifts, gold, and great gifts when they go abroad." 『후한서後漢書』 동이전 고

    The Gurye episode recorded that "the government officials wore silk embroidered when they gathered at the meeting," and the Samguk Sagi (삼』』) recorded that fans embroidered in Silla were used as small tools, indicating that embroidery was prevalent.

    During the Unified Silla Period, a ban on wearing clothes was imposed in 834 (the 9th year of King Heungdeok of the Unified Silla Dynasty), and there was also a ban related to the number of gold. The use of silk embroidered with silk was regulated on socks and shoes, and the use of silk embroidered on saddle tongs, saddle posts, and feet was prohibited. In addition, the use of embroidery bottle pungent was prohibited for bones and nutmeg. This suggests that embroidery extends not only to doubles but also to household goods.

    In the Goryeo Dynasty, embroidery was newly developed. According to the records of "Goryeosa Temple," the royal court and the general library were installed to make handicrafts. In addition, the Annals of King Munjong recorded a collection of well-preserved men and women in each palace after the king's death, indicating that the king's royal seal was made to pray for the king's paradise.

    During the Joseon Dynasty, there were embroidery decorations dedicated to the royal family's clothing and other articles. In addition, the system of wearing a rank badge on the front and back of the official uniforms of the civil service officers increases the demand for embroidery. The embroidery developed with distinct features, which were largely divided into Gungsu Palace and the people of Minsu. The private sector also used their spare time to produce and use embroidery decorated with water for various daily ornaments and supplies, such as Norigae, Bojagi, and Bangseok.

    Born in Kanagawa Prefecture in Japan, Shin Sang-soon returned to Korea after graduating from a small school in Japan and learned embroidery from Kim Nan-choong, a teacher at Masan Girls' High School, in the 1950s. In 1971, the company set up a self-made workshop called Hwarin Workshop to bring embroidery closer to everyday life, focusing on household items. The paintings include the Hwajodo and Baekdongjado and 子子 Byeongpung, which are rich in living emotions. It also strives to collect and reproduce embroidery artifacts from the Joseon Dynasty.
  • 1998.9.21
    designated date
    Among the relics related to embroidery, the oldest are the chains of short pieces excavated from Hwangnamdaechong Tomb in Gyeongju during the Silla Dynasty and the Royal Tomb of King Muryeong in the Baekje Dynasty.

    Although the artifact was excavated in short pieces, it is a rare artifact that shows that the most commonly used technique in East Asia was used during the Three Kingdoms Period. In addition, the Four Seasons of Embroidery, which are presumed to have been the Goryeo Dynasty, include Byeongpung and Amita Yeorado. The Amitabha Buddha was a Buddha who led the souls of the dead to paradise while staying in the paradise, and it is estimated that Buddhism flourished greatly in the Goryeo Dynasty due to the belief of the patriots.

    During the Joseon Dynasty, the number was embroidered on the wardrobe, red robe, robe, rank badge, and rank badge. There are very few examples of embroidered dresses, embroidered skirts, jeogori, and incense burners. Buddhist embroidery has lyrics, table manners, and suBul. Among them, Yongmunja Sutak, No. 244 of Important Folklore Cultural Heritage, housed in the Seongbo Museum of Seonamsaeng, is highly regarded for its value. It is embroidered on a very large scale with special techniques and colorful colors.

    Hwang Soon-hee, a master of embroidery, was born in Yeocheon, South Jeolla Province, in 1949 and was taught by her mother by adding her hobby to embroidery during the elementary school's lyrics class. At the age of 20, he studied Oriental embroidery at the embroidery lab in Jeongneung, Seoul, and then studied it to Han Yeong-hwa (currently the holder of intangible cultural assets of Seoul). Some of the works include Yongbo and Hunbae, Ilwol Oakdo, Sipjangsaengdo, Hwarot and Sui Norigae. In addition, many excellent works were produced through a long study of royal embroidery.
  • 1998.9.21
    Designated date
    A brush, ink, paper, and inkstone are some of the oldest writing tools. Relics from the Three Kingdoms Period were also excavated in Korea, but they may have been used before then. The dignity of the inkstone is determined by the quality of the stone making the inkstone and the level of carving on the inkstone.

    In general, the stone of the inkstone has a low hardness, making it impossible to make lively sculptures. What helped overcome this limitation was Danyang's magnet 石, owned by Shin Geun-sik, the owner of the rice paddy field. The stone is unique and beautiful in color, but it is two to three degrees stronger in hardness than other inkstone, allowing it to be carved in three dimensions.

    Magnetized inkstone is practical. Other stone-capped inkstones are carved with stones, and when the stone eats water, it becomes weaker, causing more residue, and as time goes by, the stone bursts and splits. But despite its firmness, the magnet grinds its prey finely, and no dregs occur. In particular, even if water is stored for several days, it is so water-resistant that it does not permeate, that it does not crack or burst even after decades or hundreds of years.

    Shin Geun-sik started his family business when he was 17 years old and ended his apprenticeship period, which usually takes three years. His works vary in size and shape. There are many original works such as dragon, turtle, and horseback riding.

    Also, Shin Geun-sik's works give the same impression as woodwork. The reddish colors and engraved patterns are delicate and soft, making them look like woodblocks and pasting them.
  • 1998.9.21
    Designated date
    When a funeral is held due to mourning in the village, the remains of the deceased are carried out as bier. At this time, the sound of the bier is the sound of the bier, and when the singer shakes the key and picks up the sound of the front, the patrons carrying the bier get the backstabbing. It starts with a slow-pronounced long sound, and when the bier leaves Donggu, it sings a little faster, and when it goes up a steep mountain path, it sings a fast and powerful sound. After arriving at Zhangjiyue, the song sung in the process of ironing out the mound is the sound of hoedaji. When one of the singers chokes up the sound, the rest of the people mince the sashimi while receiving the backbiting.

    Yangju Sangyeosori consists of a long sound and a jajin sound. The long Sangyeo sound is a slow gutgeori rhythm, and the back sound is 'uh-huh-uh-huh-uhri Neomchaeoha'.

    The Jajin Bonusori is a voluntarily gutgeori rhythm, and the back sound is briefly 'oh oh oh ho'. The tune of Sangyeosori in Yangju region is menaritori.

    The sound of a hoedaji includes a variety of sounds. The long dalgosori is played by a long gutgeori rhythm and the back sounds are "Ehuri dalgu" and steps on the dirt with their feet. Afterwards, the sound of self-hearing and Gyeongtori tune was called. Hoesimgok or Chohanga are sometimes sung in the rhythm of the dalgu sound. The following sounds of floriculture, boss's sound, body sound, and chirping sound are the same as the agricultural songs called gimmaegi. In the meantime, the lunar calendar ends with the sound and the mound is completed. The sound of bier tea includes not only mourning for the dead, but also labor-critical nature of holding funerals with neighbors.

    The sound of Yangju Bierhoi Daji was activated in 1995 when the village's youth formed the Bier and Hoedaji Sori Preservation Society and the nation's first training center. Currently, Hwang Jung-seop, the owner of the festival, is performing various performances and is striving to win the victory.
  • 1998.9.21
    Designated date
    Yangpyeong bier and hoe daji are funeral rituals that are handed down in Yangdong-myeon, Yangpyeong-gun, Gyeonggi-do, ranging from a song sung by people who perform fortune-telling and consolidate their graves.

    The sound of the bier is sung during the funeral process of carrying a coffin containing the body on a bier and carrying it from the house to the Jangji-dong site. On the night before the contest, the bier carries an empty bier and the bier members sing and play, which is called a "stand-up." On the morning of the birth day, after the funeral ceremony, the bier bowed twice with the bier on, and then went back and forth three times singing a long bier, which is said to be "fit their feet." When the bier went out, he used the drum along with the trick. When the seonsor shakes the knack and picks up the sound, the drummer plays the drum and follows. When a bier leaves the house, it sings a long bier sound, "Eogeum-cha-sori," and when it goes fast, it sings a voluntary bier-sori, "Eo-hwa-sori." In this area, bier was said to have sounded long when climbing steep mountain paths or crossing narrow single-wood bridges.

    When the bier arrives at the burial site, it digs into Gwangjung , a hole where the body can be buried, and goes down the hall. After that, he poured soil and sashimi and did hoe-daji three times, which is said to be "hardening up the three senses." The sound called in this process is the sound of a hoedaji.

    They sing long dalgoo sounds, followed by voluntary dalgoo sounds. The long hoedaji sound is hit by the slow Gutgeori rhythm and the back sound is received as Voluntary dalgu sound is given to the rhythm of Jajan Gutgeori and the back sound is given to the rhythm of Jajan Gutgeori. At the third end, the song ends with a song titled "The Bird Chasing" in a Menaritorian tune on the Jajin Gutgeori rhythm.

    Yangpyeong's bier and hoe-da-ji sound is meaningful in that it reveals the characteristics of the eastern part of Gyeonggi Province. Yangpyeong Bier and Hoedaji Sori Preservation Society is formed, and since the death of Choi Won-san, the artistic owner, Choi Bong-ju, the head of the conservation committee, is currently working on various events and competitions to win the victory.
  • 2015.9.22
    designated date
    Arirang, a national intangible cultural asset, is one of the most widely shared cultural symbols and a song that contains the sentiments of the Korean people.

    In addition, Arirang is a simple and natural expression of the people's joys and sorrows and aspirations, and has been passed down for generations, adding vitality to its value in history, artistry, and academic value as an intangible cultural asset.

    ※ 2012.12.5. Enlisted on UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

    ※ Arirang is a national intangible cultural asset that does not recognize certain holders or organizations in that Arirang is widely passed down across regions and generations and applied to modern times.
  • 2016.9.22
    designated date
    On September 22, 2016, it was designated as Chungcheongnam-do Intangible Cultural Property No.52 (owner Yoon Ju-yeol).

    A loom is a straight line for weaving hemp, silk, cotton, ramie, etc. It is not known exactly when it was made and used, and most of it is made of wood, making it impossible to preserve the long term.

    The study of the ancient rectangle shows the form and manipulation of the rectifier through the analysis of the parts of the straight line, the straight line drawing, and the fabric, which are unearthed piece by piece.

    Although it is essential for Seocheon Hansan ramie weaving (National designated cultural heritage and UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity), the demand for looms has decreased due to a sharp drop in ramie production compared to the past. In the face of the danger of extinction, the production technology of traditional looms has been designated as an intangible cultural asset of the provincial government to inherit and preserve traditional cultural technologies.

    The Beetle Market first began repairing the Beetle in 1962 based on carpentry technology. In 1982, the company produced the traditional loom in earnest, and worked on the supply and education of the traditional loom.

    Beetlejang can not only make traditional looms, but also make all the accessories that go into traditional looms, such as body, body houses, malco, beige, loomchae, seondari, drum and drum needles.
  • 2005.9.23
    designated date
    Hanjijang refers to a craftsman skilled in the art of making traditional paper, hanji, from the bark of mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki) trees and mulberry paste. Making hanji requires great skill and extensive experience. The mulberry bark has to be collected, steamed, boiled, dried, peeled, boiled again, beaten, mixed, strained, and dried; 99 processes are said to be required to get the paper in one’s hands, so the final process was also called baekji, meaning “one hundred paper.” Korean hanji was so famous back in the Goryeo Dynasty that the Chinese called the best-quality paper Goryeoji (literally meaning “Goryeo Paper”). Sun Mu from the Song Dynasty of China lavished Goryeo paper with praises in his book Jilin leishi (Things on Korea), saying that it was white and glossy and lovely. In the Joseon Dynasty, from the time of King Taejong, the state began to oversee paper production, establishing the office called Jojiseo (Paper Manufactory). In modern times, however, the change in architectural styles and housing environment and the import of paper have led to the virtual disappearance of traditional hanji. Today, because of high production costs, hanji is made with pulp imported from Southeast Asia rather than mulberry bark. To keep the art of hanji alive and pass it on to the next generation, the Cultural Heritage Administration has designated hanji making an Important Intangible Cultural Heritage.
  • 2002.9.25
    designated date
    Onggijang Bae Yo-seop (Residence in Sinnae-dong, Jungnang-gu, 1926) is a four-generation Onggi craftsman who has continued to work as a Hanmi-Yo-Yo-Yo-Yo-Yo-Yo-Yo-Yo-Yo-Yo-Yo-Toga (meaning the Bae family that runs beautiful Korean kiln). It was recognized as a holder on September 25, 2002 and became an honorary holder on April 13, 2017.

    It is producing 'Puredog', which is baked without glaze or lye, which is classified as a high-quality onggi.

    The word "pure" is the pure Korean word for "purple," and poison refers to a large bowl with a pear.

    "Pure Dogg" is a bowl made with salt, one of the state-run items, and was used as a Buddhist item for Buddhist temples given to the royal family or royal family in Korea.

    Bae Yo-seop's great-great-grandfather, Pyo Dae-gyeom (Francisco), joined the Catholic Church in the Chungcheong-do region, where Catholic faith first spread to Korea in the late Joseon Dynasty, and served as a lay leader in Dangjin, Chungcheong-do.

    As many Onggi artisans did, they began to burn onggi in the mountains with their families to avoid the persecution of Catholicism by Heungseon Daewongun.

    The martyrdom of Pyo Dong-gyeom (Francisco) in 1800 and his eldest son Bae Cheong-mo (Augustino) in 1829 while transcribing Catholic books led to the production of pottery as a family business by Bae Dae-bong, his third son.

    Bae lived in Eumseong, Chungcheong-do, hiding his family's martyrdom, and learned how to make Puredog, the best onggi technique of the time.

    Since then, Bae Dae-chun, the son of Bae Dae-bong, has been passed down for three generations, and Bae Bae Bae-seok, the son of Bae Dae-chun, has been handed down for four generations. The baeuiseok Japanese Icheon to the South of France and moderate damage, made a rapid demand after the onggi remote areas to production.

    Bae's eldest son, Bae Yo-seop, moved from Icheon to Yeongdeungpo, Seoul, and started his family business as a fifth generation from 1942 with his father Bae Bae-seok at the recommendation of his grandmother.

    In 1955, he moved to the Onggi branch in Sinnae-dong, Jungnang-gu, Seoul, and opened a Onggi Onggi restaurant called <Hanmi Yoyup> with his father, and carried out production activities while maintaining its own onggi style, mainly in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province.

    When his father died in 1968, when he was 42 years old, he took the initiative in operating the workshop. In the early 1980s, he was able to produce onggi mainly in the era of increased demand for onggi during the Korean War, but in the early 1980s, his second son Bae Yeon-sik and his family business, Puredog, were re-produced.

    It went through as many trials and errors as it had not been produced for a while and was designated as an intangible cultural asset of Seoul in recognition of its achievements.

    After the relocation of the workshop to Songcheon-ri, Namyangju, Gyeonggi-do in 1992 due to the development of an apartment complex in Sinnae-dong, Jungnang-gu, Seoul, Bae Yo-seop's second son Bae Yeon-sik worked on the Puregi.

    'Pure Dogi' means 'Pure' in 'Purple' and 'Pottery', which is completed at a high temperature of 1300 degrees without glaze or lye on the surface using pure yellow soil, and is further developed in materials and plasticization methods than the existing Puredogg.

    It was developed as a rural housing complex around the Songcheon-ri workshop in Namyangju, Gyeonggi Province, and moved the workshop to Seosin-myeon, Hwaseong-si, Gyeonggi-do in 2009. Now Bae Yo-seop's second son Bae Yeon-sik runs the Korea-U.S. Yobae City Toga for the sixth generation, while his granddaughter Bae Eun-kyung and Bae Sae-rom, who are in charge of seven family businesses, run the Puregi Institute.

    bbb※※ For detailed information on the above cultural assets, please refer to the Seoul Metropolitan Government Department of Historical and Cultural Heritage (202-2133-2616). </bb
  • 2003.9.25
    designated date
    Dancheong refers to the act of painting buildings, sculptures, Buddhist paintings, and crafts using pigments. Therefore, the base material is diverse, including stone, clay wall, wood, iron paste, leather, and paper, and dancheong, which is most representative of which is colored by horses or wooden architecture that encompasses the concept of western painting, is painted on subsidiary materials. The role of dancheong is especially important in wooden buildings. It is painted on wood or walls of buildings to prevent other corrosion and dryness in rain, wind, and climate change to increase durability. The patterns of Dancheon vary widely depending on the type of architectural materials and the nature of the building, respectively. Dancheongjang is not just painting buildings or painting patterns, but also producing Buddhist paintings such as tangs that require painting skills.

    On September 25, 2003, Yang Yong-ho was recognized as the holder of the event.

    ※ For detailed information on the above cultural assets, please refer to the Seoul Metropolitan Government Department of Historical and Cultural Heritage (202-2133-2616).
  • 1969.9.27
    designated date
    Seodo-sori refers to folk songs and japga, which were handed down in Hwanghae-do and Pyeongan-do provinces (Seo-do areas), and the exact timing of when the song began to be sung is unknown.

    Seodo-sori is composed of Pyeongan-do folk songs, Hwanghae-do folk songs, Seodo japga, a poem reciting Chinese poems, and Baebangi-gut, which has a dramatic composition.

    In Pyeongan-do folk songs, there are water-seam-ga, woven water-seam-ga, gin-ari, jaja-ri, and Anju-ae-seong. The most famous water-seam-ga is the water-seom-ga, which recited the sorrow as a complaint when the people of Seodo-gun were blocked from public office since the early Joseon Dynasty.

    Pyeongan-do's sound generally consists of five notes: re, mi, sol, la, and do, which form the framework of melody by going down a full five degrees from the shaking sound 'la'. In general, the editorial is long and the rhythm is not constant, so it is characterized by proper arrangement of the editorial.

    In the folk songs of Hwanghae-do, there are Ginnanbongga, Jajeonnbongga, Byeongsinnanbongga, private Nanbongga, Sanyeombul, Jajinyeombul, and Monggeumpotaryeong, which are famous for their nangbongga and wildfires.

    The sound of Hwanghae-do represents the general melody of Seodo, along with the sound of Pyeongan-do, but it is slightly different in terms of its melody progress. Pyeongan-do also has a certain rhythm compared to folk songs, and is bright and lyrical.

    Seodo japga is a sit-down sound that opposes the introduction of Seodo, and there are Gongmyeongga, private Gongmyeongga, Chohanga, Jejeon, and Chupung Gambyeolgok, among which Gongmyeongga is famous. Seodojapga has a long editorial, and the rhythm is irregular according to the embroidery of the song. There is something in common that ends with a deep-seated attitude when closing the end.

    The rhythms of Seodo sound, commonly called "Sushimgatori," are usually played from the top, the top notes are dropped, the middle notes are shaking violently, and the bottom notes are stretched straight, making it sad to sing these sounds in a relaxed.

    The singing style of Seodo Sori is a bit unique, but since there are Sokcheong and Bongcheong, Sokcheong uses a sound that is pulled with the inner voice and the head and the back of the main office.

    Baebangi Gut is a music that is often compared to pansori in Namdo, and a singer narrates Baebangi's story in a humorous way by mixing folk songs, radish songs, and jaedam based on Seodo's basic musical grammar in line with Janggu's accompaniment.

    Seodo-sori is a sound that has been handed down by the people of Seodo, who have been living in a harsh climate adjacent to the continent, along with the northern immigrants, and their living emotions are also well reflected in the songs.