K-Cultural Heritage 1 Page > Little Korea

K-CULTURAL HERITAGE

Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 1964.12.24
    designated date
    Pansori is a traditional Korean genre of epic musical storytelling in which a sorikkun (single performer) presents a long narrative work comprising sori (singing), aniri (lyrics), and neoreumsae (gestures) to the accompaniment of a gosu (drummer). While its exact origin is unknown, some scholars believe that pansori developed during the reign of King Sukjong of the Joseon Dynasty on the basis of Chunhyangga, which was composed by Yu Jin-han in 1754, while others trace its origin to an entertainment mentioned in a document dating back to the early days of the Joseon Dynasty. Still others argue that it dates back to Silla, where folk entertainments called pannoreum were widely performed. The musical accompaniment of Pansori consists of a variety of rhythms called jinyangjo, jungmori, jungjungmori, and hwimori. The drummer accompanying the singer breaks out into shouts of praise and encouragement, such as “Great!” and “Perfect!”, known as chuimsae, at the appropriate endings. During the reign of King Sunjo (1800-1834) of Joseon, there were eight masters of pansori, including Gwon Sam-deuk, Song Heung-rok, Mo Heung-gap, Yeom Gye-dal, Go Su-gwan, and Sin Man-yeop, each of who played a key role in the development of the musical genre into the form we know today. The current tendency is to divide Pansori into the following three schools: Dongpyeonje, which developed in the northeast area of Jeolla-do; Seopyeonje, which developed in the southwestern region of the peninsula; and Junggoje, which developed in Gyeonggi-do and Chungcheong-do. In its early stage, there were twelve great Pansori works, including Chunhyangga (Song of Chunhyang), Simcheongga (Song of Sim Cheong), Sugungga (Song of the Rabbit and the Turtle), Heungboga (Song of Heungbo), Jeokbyeokga (Song of the Red Cliff), Baebijang taryeong (Song of General Bae), Byeongangsoe taryeong (Song of Byeon Gang-soe), Jangkki taryeong (Song of the Cock-Pheasant), Onggojip taryeong (Song of the Miser Onggojip), Musugi taryeong (Song of Military Officials), and Gangneung maehwa taryeong (Song of Plum Blossoms of Gangneung), which were much shorter than the five works remaining today, namely, Chunhyangga, Simcheongga, Sugungga, Heungboga, and Jeokbyeokga. These five Pansori works have been designated as Important Intangible Cultural Heritages by the Korean government and are performed widely across Korea by various performers, including the following select group of government-acknowledged masters: Kim Yeo-ran, Kim Yeon-su and Kim So-hui (Chunhyangga); Jeong Gwon-jin (Simcheongga); Park Nok-ju (Heungboga); Jeong Yong-hun and Park Cho-wol (Sugungga); Park Dong-jin, Park Bong-sul, and Han Gap-ju (Joeokbyeokga).
  • 2006.12.27
    designated date
    The Jodo Anchor Bae Song is a folk song that fishermen from Jindo-gun's Jodo area have passed down while catching early in Chilsan Fish Market and Massador Field. It is a representative folk song on the west coast related to early fishing. Currently, fishing operations using anchor boats have disappeared and only songs remain, so it is necessary to preserve them as they are being taken into custody around the tides.

    Kim Yeon-ho started sailing anchor around the age of 15. I learned anchor boat songs from senior sailors while riding an anchor boat. Because of its good wood composition, it is said that it was done with the sound of the front. In anchor boats, older sailors usually speak behind their backs, and tend to leave the young sailors to the front, so Kim Yeon-ho is said to have been in charge of the front voice since he was young. In 1958, when the anchor boat disappeared, the boat began to board the boat at the end of the anchor boat in Donggu-ri's rental room. Kim Yeon-ho has been on an anchor boat since childhood, and he has abundant knowledge of the anchor boat's fishing routes thanks to his life as a sailor with older sailors. And he has a good throat, so he is said to be good at making the sound of an anchor boat song.

    Jo Oh-hwan is known for his enthusiastic learning of Jindo's folk art and his teaching activities. Although he has never been on an anchor boat and has not been engaged in fishing in person, he is recognized as having an excellent knowledge of the anchor boat because he has extensive experience in investigating while meeting anchor boat song holders. Cho organized the Jindo Anchor Bae Song Preservation Society a long time ago and has been working on the activities of the Anchor Bae Song. During a long period of time, Jo also visited several islands to investigate the anchor boat songs and published a booklet titled "Jindo Anchor Bae Song" (Jindo Cultural Center, 2004).
  • 2004.1.5
    designated date
    Calligraphy refers to engraving letters on trees or stones, and it is a craftsman who does this work. The calligraphy is no different from the duties of the head of each chapter, which originally used to engrave letters in order to withdraw books or engrave Pyeonaek. In other words, it is an alias given to each person as they move toward the realm of art that they hang on the wall and appreciate recently. Each area varies from small stamps to individual withdrawals and hanging pyeonaeks on buildings. However, each withdrawal is different in that each letter is engraved upside down for printing.

    Korea's individual technology is widely known for excellence along with printing technology. Among the woodblocks, "Mugujeonggwangdae dharani Sutra" produced during the Unified Silla Period (751), is the oldest artifact, and many Confucian woodblocks of the Joseon Dynasty, including the Tripitaka Koreana of Haeinsa Temple during the Goryeo Dynasty, are reported. Of course, it has become a channel through which knowledge is spread through woodblocks. Recalling that metal types were also made of mother and mother type, each of them played a significant role.

    The most suitable trees for each are mountain cherry trees, jujube trees, birch trees, pear trees, and sputum trees. This is because the pattern is low in bumps and hard and tough wood is required. To engrave letters on the woodblock, a delicate process is first needed to control the properties of the material. It was an old way to soak in seawater or mudflats for years or boil them in a pot. However, in traditional Korean culture, instead of hammering the back of a knife, it was common to push or pull a knife.

    Gajangjang was designated as a national intangible cultural heritage by the late Oh Ok-jin and Kim Gak-han. Gajeongjang was designated as Gajangjang in various regions. Lee Gyu-nam, the 40th calligrapher in Gyeonggi Province, was recognized as the holder in 2004. Yi Gyu-nam learned from Oh Ok-jin and Shin Hak-gyun, and from Kim Chung-hyeon, he restored various pieces of Pyeonaek and woodblocks.
  • 2006.3.20
    designated date
    ☆A carpenter who builds palaces, temples, and houses is called Daemokjang, and a carpenter who makes furniture, windows, etc. is called Somokjang.

    Somokjang needs the ability to create unique Korean beauty by maximizing the beauty of trees. In other words, understanding of the wood itself is necessary as well as knowledge of the woodwork, and above all, it must have an artistic sense. In addition, the completed furniture should be artistically as well as practical, and most of all, it should be durable enough to withstand climate change.

    The process of making wooden furniture is diverse, complex and elaborate. There are many different methods of weaving; somokjangs squeeze a sturdy frame without a nail or a paste. In addition, metal, Najeon(mother-of-pearl), and Hwagak(ox horn) are combined and lacquer is used as a paint to add durability and beauty.

    Various patterns, such as the ten traditional Symbols of Longevity or the Four Gracious Plants give artistic value. Woodwind method digs up wood according to the pattern and inserts wood and materials of different colors to express the pattern in various colors. These various techniques are being used to make our traditional furniture.

    Kwon Woo-beom, the holder of the function, learned traditional craft skills from his father, learned modern techniques under Oh Yang-hwan, and visited Kim Oh-gyeom to learn the production of three-dimensional works such as Buddha statues, horses, tigers, dragons, and eagles.
    In 1970, at the age of 20, he and his teacher participated in the first Excellent Crafts Competition hosted by the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy. The teacher won the prize and Kwon was selected as a special candidate.

    He review the old and learn the new. Traditional furniture made to fit the sedentary life of wooden houses now claims that it should be made to fit the standing structure of cement-structured apartments, and is also putting it into practice. At the same time, it is said that the true tradition is to inherit and develop the merits of traditional crafts, such as the simple texture of traditional crafts, and the beauty of division, and to combine new senses to create a new concept of luxury that precedes the times.
  • 2019.4.3
    designated date
    "Traditional fishing is a traditional fishing culture in fishing villages, which refers to fishing gear or fishing methods that catch fish that flock to the coast during the ebb tide by hitting bamboo feet or stacking stones.

    "Eo-sal" has a very long history, as it can be found in the records of the Goryeo period such as "The History of the Three Kingdoms" and "The History of Goryeo." After the 16th and 17th centuries, due to the natural conditions of coastal areas and the growing demand for seafood due to the development of commerce in the late Joseon Dynasty, the transformation of 'arrow fish' was made, resulting in the emergence of Jubuk on the west coast, Bangryum on the south coast, and Jangsal on the west coast. As such, 'arrow fish' has been an important part of the various traditional fishing methods that have been handed down in Korea.

    As shown in the "fish fishing" in Kim Hong-do (Treasure No. 527) of Kim Hong-do (1745-1806 or later), "Eo Sal" represented coastal fishing until the Joseon Dynasty. However, with the development of fishing industry in the coastal waters after the 1970s, the traditional fishing methods, including 'arrow', began to decline relatively. One of the most common examples of Assal, which has been handed down so far, is anchovy fishing using bamboo sticks installed in the Jijok Strait in Namhae-gun and Mado and Jeodo Island in Sacheon-si.

    "Traditional fishing methods - fish flesh" are designated as national cultural properties in various aspects, including an understanding of nature and ecological environment, a combination of fish habits, the experienced knowledge of fishermen catching fish by looking at season and water, an important role in studying fishing culture, fishermen's fishing history, people's life history, and the fact that "fish flesh" continues to evolve into various forms of "net flesh."

    However, the 'traditional fishing method – fish slaughter' was designated as the Korean fishermen's empirical knowledge system and was a lifestyle and culture widely inherited in fishing villages rather than limited to certain areas.
  • 2018.4.30
    designated date
    Since Korea does not have a salt producing area, salt is produced from ancient times to the present using seawater as the raw material. Records of producing salt can be found from the Goryeo Dynasty, and the Cheonil Salt Farm, which has continued to date, was introduced in 1907 and lasted for more than 100 years. The biggest feature of the mudflats is that they were formed in mudflats, and Korea accounts for 86% of the world's tidal flat natural salt production. In addition, the unique characteristics of Korea can be found in the belief that salt prevents fire and eradicates injustice. In the future, research on salt production methods and working structure will greatly contribute to the academic research on fishing village culture and the ecology of mudflats in Korea. In addition, the mudflat salt field on the west coast creates a unique landscape along with the fall tide.

    ※ Since decontamination is not a traditional knowledge or technique that is passed down only to a specific region, it is not recognized as a holder or organization and is designated as a sport only.
  • 2017.5.1
    designated date
    Haenyeo is a living witness representing Korea's traditional marine culture and women's fishing culture. Beyond the changing times, haenyeo have created a community culture, and in the livelihood and culture of haenyeo, various wisdom can be found about the coexistence of nature and human beings and the continued use and distribution of common lands.

    The records of haenyeo have a long history, as shown in the 17th-century records related to Jeju Island, and the 'material' of haenyeo is a primitive form of language that is not found elsewhere. In addition, the folk knowledge of the ecological environment accumulated from the material experience is considerable, and it forms a unique community life culture of haenyeo, including consideration and collaboration for their fellow haenyeo, and their faith and rituals.

    As such, the culture related to haenyeo was designated as a national intangible cultural asset in order to preserve and inherit the cultural heritages, as they were highly valuable in terms of historical, artistic, and uniqueness.



    ※ List of UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2016 (Jeju Haenyeo Culture)

    ※ The culture related to haenyeo is not recognized by certain holders or organizations in that it has a strong community nature through collaboration.
  • 2015.8.6
    designated date
    It is a rite held in Goheung-gun, Jeollanam-do, which is well inherited the tradition of Namdo-specific shamanism. On August 6, 2015, it was designated as Jeollanam-do Intangible Cultural Property No.58.

    Born in a hereditary martial arts family, Kim Myeong-rye met her husband and passed on as a family business, and has systematic knowledge and entertainment of Goheung Honmajigut.
  • 2013.8.12
    designated date
    Wood carving is a sculpting craftsman who uses wood to express the amount and texture of wood. Kim Tae-gil, a holder of traditional wood carving, entered the traditional wood carving field in 1974, and has systematically preserved and inherited traditional wood carving techniques based on his overall understanding of Buddha sculpture. He inherited the tradition of the Geumhomunmunpa, which began with Geumho Pharmacy in the late Joseon Dynasty, and led by Boeun Munseong—Geum Yong Ilseop—Chunho and Park Junju, and expanded the world of his works by learning kaegeum and color from his teacher Park Junju.

    The holder started the first Korean method of matching wood-burning (tanghwa) pieces with deep knowledge. Wooden Buddhas (tanghwa) were mainly made of wood instead of paintings, but there are not many remaining traditional wood-carved tangerines that were mostly destroyed by fire in the late Joseon Dynasty.

    Ginkgo trees, which are beautiful and solid, are used mainly for the work, and the main works of the holder include the six-gwanum of Bota Temple at Naksansa Temple, the Jijang Bodhisattva at Gyeryongsan Mountain, Sacheonwang at Goseon Temple in Goseong, and Sacheonwang at Beopcheonsa Temple in Muan.

    The traditional wood carving environment in Chungcheongnam-do was designated as an intangible cultural asset of Chungcheongnam-do in recognition of the value of preservation of traditional wood carving techniques by the holder.
  • 2011.9.30
    designated date
    Kim Moo-chul was taught the dance by his father, Kim Jo-kyun.

    The name of the dance was called "Nammu" due to the nature of the Jeolla region, where traditional dances were held at that time, and the dance performed by Namsadangpae and Mudong etc. as a entertainment at the end of the Joseon Dynasty was performed at Kibang when Namsadangpae were scattered. It is a dance in which Hong-an, which is covered with a fan, is covered with a combination of images of Han-ryang and Heung-heung, and adds to the style, and gives a glimpse of Han-ryang's knowledge and personality, especially the unique charm of foot stepping-stone adds to the taste of the dance.
  • 1993.10.30
    designated date
    Joseonjang refers to a craftsman who makes Hansun Hanryuk, a traditional Korean ship. In the case of Hanseon, it takes two to three people to build a large ship and one to two people to build a small ship, depending on the type of ship. The shipbuilding yard requires not only knowledge of the ship's structure but also architectural engineering skills. It also needs to be accurate and experienced as it is necessary to build a ship, a solid wooden structure, by weaving in numerous members.

    Among the ships on the Han line, the boats operating on the river are called Gangseon 江船. Unlike Byeongseon and Jounseon, which operated on the sea, Gangseon was built to suit the rivers of Korea. Typical riverboats are ferry boats and ferry boats used to cross rivers at ferry sites. The common thing between ferry and ferry is that there are no masts. On the other hand, it was said to be a night-distance boat, which was available both in the sea and on land, and entered inland through the river. The ship is characterized by its flat bottom, allowing it to sit still in the sand by the river.

    Since the most commercially developed waterway in Korea was the Han River Waterway leading to Seoul, the majority of the Hanseon engineers, especially the Gangseon engineers, lived in the Han River basin. The technology for manufacturing steel wires developed in the Han River basin, and the pulse of the technology has continued to recent years.

    Recently, however, traditional craftsmen have died of old age, and the number of skilled craftsmen is so rare that they are almost exhausted. Kim Gwi-seong, the owner of a shipbuilding yard who has been engaged in Joseon and ferry services for eight generations, continues the tradition of making traditional Korean ships.

    He lived in Baealmi-dong, Hanam, under Paldang Dam, and learned how to make strong ships from his father, Kim Yong-un. Most of the cruise and exhibition ships in Seoul and Gyeongji areas, including the Hwangpo sailboat with a head of Yangpyeong, were produced by Kim Gwi-sung.
  • 2017.11.15
    designated date
    "Kimchi-making" is a daily and repetitive culture in which the entire Korean people participate as a community beyond regional, social, and economic differences. Kimchi is an indispensable food for Koreans regardless of the region, and it has become one of Korea's representative foods in recognition of its excellence internationally.

    It is an important component of Korean culture for a considerable period of time that contains the spirit of cooperation and sharing, and through this culture, individuals have become united in their relationships with the people, relatives, villages, neighbors, and new communities and have formed their identity.

    "Kimjang," the core of kimchi-making, contains traditional knowledge that nature and humans can live together, and the spirit of sharing, solidarity and harmony that emphasizes to maintain the good of society continues to modern society.

    In the past, if intergenerational transmission was carried out mainly in women's communities such as mothers and daughters-in-law based on accumulated experience and knowledge, Hyundai is becoming an active entity where science is integrated and men participate in kimchi, and schools, private organizations, and local governments are also actively participating in various forms of kimchi culture.

    In addition, the various fermented bacteria in kimchi show biological diversity and local diversity, giving a glimpse of cultural diversity derived from natural environment.

    Making kimchi did not recognize certain holders or organizations in that it was a lifestyle and culture handed down throughout the country rather than requiring high-level special skills.
  • 2017.11.21
    designated date
    •Hwando is a name derived from the fact that it has a cut and wears a ring, a string on the hook, and wears it on the waist. Also called urethra, gangdo.

    The name "Hwando" has been used since the late Goryeo Dynasty. Most of the knives of the Joseon Dynasty were called 'Hwando'. Short and light to carry and use in an emergency. After the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592, the length of the hwando was relatively long. The production of Hwan-do is directly managed by the State. Made by the hwan-do-jang belonging to the military discipline.

    • The functions of the exchange center can be divided into four different types of functions: iron smelting function (filling function), blacksmith craft function (folding function), axillary reinforcement function (unfolding function, tempering function, heating function), and molding and polishing function (fracturing function, grinding function, polishing function), and polishing function. Hong Seok-hyun has mastered all of these functions and has excellent skills.

    • Hong Seok-hyun smelts the sand iron (selected from Yeosu, Hongseong, where the sea meets the river) and makes sand iron steel bars, which are grafted and forged in a traditional manner. The traditional pottery is very strong and has little impurities, so it does not rust easily.

    • Passage decorations are not carried around with a sword, but are worn with a sword, and Hong Seok-hyun expresses his artistic beauty by reproducing the pass decorations seen in Hwan-do.


    • Hong Seok-hyun moved to Seoul in 1968 and acquired woodworking and metalworking until 1982. At this time, the craftsmanship acquisition enabled the expression of artistic beauty as a place of exchange that required a variety of techniques.

    • Hong Seok-hyun was the chief prosecutor Jeon Yong-ha (Dogam Production Workshop/Operation of Daehan Kendo), who was the first prosecutor's license in 1983 by the National Police Agency in 1983.Yi Sun-sin's work on the repair and repair of the general Yi Sun-sin) has received knowledge and functions on the pottery, blade grinding process, and traditional pottery.

    • For seven years from 1992-1998, the late Im Myeong-gil (Dogam Production) has been studying traditional pottery techniques such as blade smoke, charcoal smoke, folding, tempering, loosening, and knitting functions.

    • In 1992, the late Im Myeong-gil was enshrined in a workshop and studied important techniques in traditional pottery techniques for seven years. The late Chung Eung-jo and the late Yu Jeok-seon (metal crafts) were also taught various functions of traditional crafts.

    • It reproduces artifacts, excavated and excavated daggers through the research of ancient documents and functions handed down from various craftsmen to the present since 1989.