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K-CULTURAL HERITAGE

Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 1994.12.5
    designated date
    Nongak is the music played by farmers when they squeeze their dure and play percussion instruments such as kkwaenggwari, Jing, Janggu, and drum.

    The nongak of Jeollanam-do can be largely classified as Jwa-do-gut, Udo-gut, and Seodo-an-gut based on the composition, attire, and musicality. Among them, Book Coastal Gut is a nongak performed in Geumsan-myeon, Wando and Jindo areas in Goheung-gun, which are located in the South Sea and the Southwest Sea, and Gilgut is different from that of the land and has a unique identity that does not belong to any region, such as Jwa-do and U-do, where the ritual is centered.

    Goheung Wolpo Nongak is a type of Seohaean Gut, which is said to have been started by playing Nongak to boost the morale of the troops during the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592. The composition of nongak consists of Deokseokgi, Nonggi, Nongak, Yeonggi, Soe, Soe, Nongbu, Jing, Janggu, Buk, Buggu, Sogo, Daeposu, and Yangban.

    It is characterized by the complete preservation of the Mungut and the strong religious character associated with the rite, and the boy's role as a "farm farmer" is outstanding, with lively dance and craftsmanship and not seen in other regions. Currently, Choi Byung-tae is recognized as the holder of entertainment in Goheung Wolpo Nongak.
  • 2011.12.6
    designated date
    Songseo literally refers to the sound of reading a book. Originally, reading sounds were used in Chinese Classics Schools. Reading ability is more like a shading or melodic singing depending on what kind of book you read. Among them, some of the musical melodies are sung by professional singers.

    Sichang(singing poetry) or Songseo(recitation) by experts is limited to extremely limited articles. "Kwansan Yungma" is representative in the current traditional music in Sichang, and in the case of Songseo, there is "Jeokbyeokbu" left by Seodo Myeongchang Kim Jung-yeon, and "Chupunggambyeolgok," and "Samsulgi," passed down by Muk gye-wol. In addition, Yulchang materials are still left such as "Gyeongpo Daesi" and "Sipjaegyeong-yeong" sung by Kim Deok-soon. These poems originated from the recitation of Chinese poetry, and Songseo is based on Chinese reading and is a musical composition made by professional entertainers.

    Meanwhile, Songseo passed down by ordinary people through Seodang education are being passed down in another line. Songseo and Yulchang originated from the past when scholars recited the lyrics to study Chinese characters. Songseo and Yulchang of the general public are sung in a song in Chinese poems or classics, which were sung to the rhythm when reading in Seodang. In the case of reciting a poem in 5 of 7 rhythm, it is also known as Sichang. Songseo is more like a Seodo style sound with simple Yuljo giving mournful tone, and Yulchang has a normal consonant that indicates the high, low, and long sound, allowing anyone to make the same note.

    Songseo and Yulchang designated as cultural assets of Gyeonggi-do may be regarded as cases that include both the sound of experts and the transmission of ordinary people. Han Byung-ok, the owner of the school, died on August 3, 2019, and Lee Seok-ki, an assistant instructor for successor training, is working on performances and transmission activities.
  • 1964.12.7
    designated date
    Jongmyo Jeryeak refers to music played using dance, songs, and musical instruments when performing ancestral rites (Jongmyo Jerye) at a shrine (Jongmyo) that honors kings and queens of the Joseon Dynasty.

    In each procedure of the Jongmyo rite, a song called Jongmyo movement is sung to praise the virtues of ancestors, focusing on the music of Bo Tae-pyeong and Jeong Dae-up. While the Jongmyo Jeryeak is played, it is accompanied by a literary figure, Bo Taepyeongjimu (honor of the kings' virtues) and a martial artist, Jeong Dae-upjimu (praise of the kings' exploits).

    Jongmyo Jeryeak was originally created for use in the royal banquet in 1447 (the 29th year of King Sejong's reign), and has been handed down to this day after being repaired in accordance with the 10th year of King Sejong's reign (1464). Eleven songs by Bo Tae-pyeong and 11 by Jung Dae-up are played at the Jongmyo Daeje, which is held on the first Sunday of May every year.

    Jongmyo Jeryeak is the essence of court music, which combines instrumental performances, songs and dances of the Joseon Dynasty, and has a unique style and beauty that can not be seen in other countries while well showing our cultural traditions and characteristics.

    The National Intangible Cultural Property No. 1 Jongmyo Jeryeak is currently listed as a representative UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
  • 1964.12.7
    designated date
    Yangju Byeolsandae Nori is one of the Sandae Dogam performed by itinerary troupes based in Seoul and the capital region. Consisting of dance, pantomime, well-wishing remarks, and acrobatics, it originated about 200 years ago and came to be performed during holidays and seasonal festivals such as the Buddha’s Birthday, Dano Festival, and Chuseok (Harvest Moon Festival on the 15th day of the eighth lunar month) and during ritual prayers for rainfall. Yangju Byeolsandae Nori is known to have originated from the mask dances performed by the Sajikgol Ttakttagipae group in Seoul. Each performance consists of eight episodes, which were often preceded by a parade in which performers wearing masks would dance around a town playing music, and hold a rite consisting of prayers for the safety of its residents. The main event was essentially a satire of Korean society with 32 characters representing different social groups and stereotypes, including depraved monks, impoverished aristocrats, shamans, buffoons, servants, and commoners.
  • 1964.12.7
    designated date
    Namsadang Nori was played by Namsadangpae, a wandering entertainer consisting of at least 40 men, including the puppet (head) from the late Joseon Dynasty to the 1920s, mainly for the working class.

    Namsadang Nori was a folk play that was born naturally in the common people's society, and it was not free to perform in the village due to being persecuted by aristocrats.

    Namsadangpae consists of a hwaju, who plans a performance at the peak of the puppet, a dungsoe, a playmaker, a rookie, an older monk, and a backman, but Namsadang Nori consists of pungmul, Verna, Salpan, Eoreum, Deobogi, and Dulmi.

    Pungmul is a kind of nongak nori, and it can be seen as a play to attract spectators by announcing the start of the performance.

    Verna, similar to Chinese dish spinning, is a feat of spinning a wheel or bowl to a stick or a pipe.

    Salpan is a land talent like today's tumbling, which means that if you do well, you'll die if you don't do well.

    Eoreum was used only in Namsadangpae because it was as difficult as walking on ice as walking cautiously, but more and more people began to use it.

    Seotboogi is a kind of mask play with a mask on. Dulmi, which extends to puppet shows, is called puppet play, Park Cheomji play, and Hongdongji play, depending on the important characters in the puppet show. In particular, puppet play has been handed down to this day, and it is of great historical significance that Namsadang play is the only traditional Korean puppet play.

    Namsadang Nori, which originated from the working class and was performed for the working class, was used to criticize and solve the immorality of the Korean and aristocratic communities that were treated poorly by the society at that time and to awaken public awareness.
  • 2009.12.7
    designated date
    San Joaeng is a musical instrument created by the originality of the Korean people, and Sanjo is also a music that can be designated as a World Heritage Site just like Pansori. Sanjo, which is rooted in shamanism and pansori, retains the history and tradition of the Korean people, and has become highly professional and artistic through the formation and development process of Sanjo.

    Currently, the Ajaeng Sanjo is not designated in any city or province in the country, and Park Yong-tae's Sanjo, based in Busan, has very few people who wish to be transferred due to the lack of a base population. In addition, due to economic and learning difficulties, effective transfer of young people, including early transfer, is not possible, and preservation is in danger.

    Park Yong-tae is a first-generation apprentice to Han Il-seop, the founder of Ajaeng Sanjo. Park Yong-tae's genealogy, along with other masters of the same-literature Korean classical music, is clear and the legitimacy of the melody is beyond question. It is no exaggeration to say that his musical skills and standards are unrivaled, and he is performing extensively on stages across the country, as well as in Busan and the Yeongnam region.

    Park Yong-tae's "Ajaeng Sanjo" (Park Dae-sung-ryu) has a lot of Ujo-seong rhythms, unlike ordinary mountains. In other words, the ordinary mountain bird is composed mainly of surfactant rhythms, giving the impression of pleading and purring, while the Park Dae-seong's Ajaeng Sanjo has a strong and magnificent feeling. This musical feeling is in line with the musical characteristics of Menarijo, a musical characteristic of Gyeongsang-do. Therefore, the Ajaeng Sanjo of Park Yong-tae (Park Dae-seongryu) can be seen as having enough of the characteristics of life of the people of Gyeongsang-do.

    Currently, he is transferring from a new building to a new building located in the former Dongnae area of the Dongnae-gu Hot Spring Park. Dongnae Kwon Bun was a popular attraction where master singers from all over the country gathered to inherit the tradition of Korean traditional music in Busan after Japanese colonial era.
  • 1999.12.7
    designated date
    Nongyo is a song that is sung to forget fatigue and improve efficiency while working on rice paddies and fields, also called wild songs or farming sounds. Nongyo, one of the folk songs, is sung individually or collectively, and the song may vary depending on the region.

    There is a theory that the name "Maddle" originated from the Korean word "Maddeul" in Sanggye-dong, which was raised by releasing horses in fields, and that this area originated from the pure Korean word "Maddeul." The contents include the sound of planting rice and the sound of rice paddies. The sound of non-maegi is composed of the sound of the durucha when first tied with a ho-mi, the water parsley when tied with two layers, and the sound of the kkeokumjo, which is sung excitedly in the evening at the end of the day. In addition, Bangataryeong, Nennell Sangsadiya, and Ouya-ddeul-ddeul-ddeul-dda are sometimes called.

    In Gangwon-do, where there are far more fields than rice paddies, the sound of rice planting or field farming was called Menari, which was spread through Pocheon, Gyeonggi-do, and a different style of folk song was formed. Therefore, Madeul Nongyo is a folk song that has been influenced by agricultural songs in Gangwon-do based on agricultural songs in Gyeonggi-do, and should be inherited well even in the current area, which consists of apartment complexes.

    On December 7, 1999, Kim Wan-su was recognized as the holder, and the holding organization was the Madeul Nongyo Preservation Association.

    bbb※※ For detailed information on the above cultural assets, please refer to the Seoul Metropolitan Government Department of Historical and Cultural Heritage (202-2133-2616). </bb
  • 1992.12.8
    designated date
    Shijochang refers to singing a song with the lyrics of Sijo poem (Korean traditional poetry), also known as Sijo-si, Sidae-dan-ga.

    The oldest record is a poem written by Lee Se-chun, a scholar of the "Seokbukjip" (pen-name: Seokbukjip) during the reign of King Yeongjo (r. 1724-1776). In the "Yu Yeji" and "Gura Cheolsageumjabo" published during the reign of King Sunjo (r. 1800-1834), Sijo's sheet music first appears. After that, due to the influence of the song, the composition of the poem was distributed and divided into local characteristics.

    Naepoje sijo is a shijochang in northwestern Chungcheongnam-do. Naepo is presumed to have been named because it refers to Seosan, Dangjin, Yesan and Hongseong in Chungcheong Province.

    The scale is composed of three-symmetric tones (a sad and mournful tone) and five-syllable tones (a clear and vigorous tone). The rhythm is not raised in the middle to maintain a sense of stability, and the end is dropped to leave a lingering impression, not falsetto, and a lot of decoration is used. Because they play a temporary instrument with a long or knee rhythm without an instrument, five beats are reduced in the end of the long and medium length.

    Naepoje Sijo is a valuable piece of music that people have enjoyed singing for a long time.
  • 2008.12.10
    designated date
    The current Seo-gu area of Incheon, which passed through the Three Kingdoms and the Goryeo Period and reached the Joseon Dynasty, is recorded as Seogot-myeon, the 13th year of King Jeongjo's reign (1789).

    Since then, the name of the administrative district has been changed to Seogot, and it has continued its long history and preserved its precious agricultural culture. The exact date is unknown, but the development of agricultural culture in the western part of Incheon can be inferred from the Joseon Dynasty or earlier.

    "Seogot Deul Song" is a song that farmers in Seogot, Incheon used to sing for planting and gimaegi from a long time ago. The sound of mochi and rice planting is soft with the sound of a diagonal.

    Maggie's sound is divided into a bee, two bees, and three bees, and consists of a short rhythm with a cheerful rhythm that empowers farmers and a long chorus.
  • 2008.12.10
    designated date
    In traditional society, nongak has three main ways of existence. First, nongak related to rituals such as dangsangut or yard treading, and second, nongak related to labor and play, such as duregut played in Gimmaegi with durekun, and third, pangut related nongak.

    The current "Gabbi-gocha Nongak" is a pangut-style nongak related to play, and the main theme of this song is Nongsa-gut Nori, which reproduces farming work as a play.

    These farming rituals are found in parts of Gyeongsangbuk-do and Gangwon-do, and are largely characterized by the preservation of similar nongak in Ganghwa, which is far from the region.
  • 2008.12.10
    designated date
    As one of the most popular songs from the late Joseon Dynasty to the early 20th century, it is said to be a song of professional entertainers, such as gisaeng, Sadangpae, and singers, to sing long editorials in technical musical terms, and is used as a concept that distinguishes it from folk songs, which are simple songs of non-professionals.

    Whimori japga is a japga, which means driving fast, and is sung standing up. The editorial content of the Janghyeong Sijo is divided into three parts, and it is composed of humorous and interesting speech skills, and although there are many similarities with the private Sijo, it is distinguished between the rhythm and the singing style.

    When the singers sang, they often sang a long japga at first, followed by a chorus, and then a whistle japga at the end.

    The current Hwimori japga includes Gombo Taryeong, Sanmae Japa, Manhakcheonbong, Yuk Chilwol, Cloudy Day, Hanjan Buira, Byeongjeong Taryeong, Sungum Taryeong, Gisaeng Taryeong, Rock Taryeong, Bidan Taryeong, and Maengkong Taryeong.
  • 1986.12.11
    designated date
    Nongyo is a song that is sung to forget fatigue and improve efficiency while working on rice paddies and fields, also known as wild songs or farming sounds. Singing individually or collectively as one of the folk songs, the song may vary depending on the region.

    Yecheon Gongcheo Nongyo was a labor song that was widely passed down around the Nakdonggang River coast. It was a remote inland village, so it was a pure folk song sung only in this village without mixing with the influx of neighboring cultures.

    The contents are composed of rice planting songs, non-maggi sounds, threshing sounds, geolchae sounds, and ching chingi (Gaeji Na Ching-ching is composed of rice seedlings, rice paddies, threshing sounds, threshing sounds, etc. The song "Mosimgi" is sung by planting rice seedlings, while the sound of rice paddies is tied to rice paddies, and the threshing sound is a song sung by Tsing Chingi as she comes out of the field after rice paddies. This folk song is said to be the most primitive form.

    The Yecheon Gongcheo Nongyo has been handed down with a local color and contains the sorrows and joys of farmers. Hwang Ki-seok, the art holder who lives in Pungyang-myeon, Yecheon-gun, continues his career.
  • 2016.12.15
    designated date
    The sound of bier Didylbanga Liquid Membrane was a method of "civil belief" to prevent diseases when infectious diseases were prevalent and human lives were lost during the dynasty when medical techniques were not developed. It may be futile for modern people with advanced medical skills, but our ancestors believed that this could prevent and cure diseases.



    The ritual of folk belief was accompanied by "Sound," which was referred to as "Geochang Sangyeo Didilbanga Liquid Sound" or "Geochang Didilbanga Liquid Sound."
  • 2013.12.19
    designated date
    The sound of Gwangyang Jinwol gizzard is a labor song that has been handed down around Gwangyang Bay, and is an intangible folk heritage that shows the diversity of life that Gwangyang Bay people have lived in the ecological environment at the mouth of the Seomjingang River and the southern coast.

    It is said to be in the form of a performance, and it consists of the sound of rowing, netting, net raising, phlegm, late sound, and gizzard shirking, and Nanjanggut. It features the unique fishing and cultural characteristics of Gwangyang Bay, which is associated with the representative species of fish on the southern coast.
  • 1967.12.21
    designated date
    Yaryu is a custom of Ogwangdae (mask dance drama) that was first performed in the inland areas of Gyeongsangnam-do but spread to Suyeong, Dongnae, and Busanjin. Yaryu literally means playing in an open field. This mask play was performed by non-professionals like villagers. Dongnae Yaryu was performed on the evening of the full moon of January 15 on the lunar calendar, supposedly to pray for a good year for crops. Dongnae Yaryu was said to have been started about 100 years ago after its cousin performed in nearby Suyeong. Now performed as an entertainment, it is composed of four acts: leper dance, gag exchanged between a yangban (nobleman) and Malttugi (servant), Yeongno (therianthropic character)’s dance, and old couple’s dance. Members of the troupe march to the site of performance while playing music. The main subject of the performance is a satire about nobles. The masks are made of gourds. The chin part of the masks is made movable, moving upward and downward while its wearer delivers a gag. The play is performed to the accompaniment of percussion instruments, which play exorcist music. Malttugi’s dance and nobleman’s dance are the leading performances. Obangsin (Deities of the Five Directions)’s dance, satire about deprave monks, and lion dance -- which are usually included in Ogwangdae mask dance drama -- are not performed in Dongnae Yaryu.