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K-CULTURAL HERITAGE

Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 1982.6.1
    designated date
    When holding juldarigi (tug-of-war) in Gijisi-ri, Songak-eup, Dangjin-si, Chungcheongnam-do, the village was divided into two teams, those living close to the shore and the others. It was said that the village would see a good year for the crop when the “close-to-the-shore” group won the contest. The play was performed after Dangje (village ritual) in early March of a leap year in the lunar calendar.

    There are two theories about the origin of the tug-of-war held in this village. One says that the village looks like a fairy weaving and the movement of pulling a cloth being woven at both sides led to the tug-of-war, the other tells us that the local topography resembles a centipede and so villagers engaged in the tug-of-war using a rope that also looked like a centipede.

    The straw rope used in the tug-of-war is 50 – 60m long. The diameter of the main section of the rope, which is made each year, comes to more than 1m and if you sat down on it, your legs would not touch the ground. Many thinner straw ropes are tied to the main section for people to tug.

    The leaders of the two teams would stand on the main section of the rope to give necessary signals while farmers’ music is played joyously to cheer on the participants. After the contest is over, people take away pieces cut off the rope, as it is said that the water heated with a rope piece is a cure for backache or infertility.

    The event is a rite held to pray for a good harvest and to build a spirit of collaboration among the villagers.
  • 2018.6.1
    designated date
    The village ritual in Bucheon, Siheung, Ansan, Osan, Hwaseong, Suwon, Gwangju, and Anseong, which are located in the southern part of Gyeonggi-do, is called Gyeonggi-gut. This village ritual is performed by the hereditary succession of martial arts, which are called hwarangi or mountain, and women are called miji. The dance of Gyeonggi-do Danggut, which is centered on Hwarangipae or Sani-eul in southern Gyeonggi-do, means the dance that was performed at Gutpan in a broad sense, and in a narrow sense refers to the Gyeonggi-do Danggut Sinawi dance, which is an art of performance, leaving Gutpan. In addition, the accompaniment of the dance is called Gyeonggi-do Danggutsi Nawi Dance because it is so-called Gyeonggi-do Sinawi Dance, which is difficult for experts to understand, such as Seopchae, Banseolumumjangdan, Onigutgeori, Jinsojangdan, Olimchae, Sangjimachi, Garaejo, Valkudre, and Bujeongnoridan. Gyeonggi-do Danggut Sinawi Dance, which is stylized on stage against the backdrop of shamanistic tradition in Gyeonggi-do, includes "Boojeong Nori Dance," "Turberim Dance," "Jinchigi Dance," "Sneakchae Dance," "Olimchae Dance," "Jeseok Dance," and "Dosalpuri Dance," and Maeheon Kim Sook-ja, who is at the center of the dance.



    Maeheon Kim Sook-ja (梅軒 19 19: 1926-1991) learned the dance music contained in shamanism from her father Kim Deok-soon, a native of Jaeincheong, Hwaseong, and the entire shamanism from her mother, Jung Gwi-seong. The characteristic element of Kim Sook-ja's Gyeonggi-do Danggut Sinawi Dance, a former hereditary dancer, is that she recreated it as a traditional dance by developing the dance of ritual dance that Hwareang and Moohyeo used to perform at Gyeonggi-do Danggut, which has been handed down in Gyeonggi-do Province. Therefore, Kim Sook-ja's dances were originally performed at Dodang Gutpan in Gyeonggi Province, but they are representative shamanistic dances that were staged and entertainmentized in the process of re-creation and transmission.

    The Gyeonggi-do Danggut Sinawi Dance and Gyeonggi-do folk dance, which were passed down to Kim Sook-ja from Kim Deok-soon, father of Maeheon Kim Sook-ja ( 19 1926-1991), and his mother Jeong Gwi-seong, are now preserved through his disciple Lee Jung-hee, and are handed down to his disciple Hansumun.
  • 1994.6.7
    designated date
    Depending on the shape of the rite, it can be divided into seongut and seatedgut. Sakyamuni's Gut refers to a general rite performed by a shaman, while Sakyamuni's Gut was named after a shaman sitting in the Chungcheong area reading the scriptures.

    Sajingut, which is believed to have historically been formed by interrelationships with other religions such as Buddhism and Taoism, has a long history as a branch of Korean shamanism with the addition of dance to the rite. The Chungcheong area, centered around Daejeon, has a strong tradition of sitting-gut, making it the only shamanistic area in Korea.

    Seating Gut in Daejeon has Antaekgut, Madgut, and Seolgyeong, and the owner of Antaekgut and Madgut is Sinseokbong, which is reproduced in the way it was practiced in the 1940s and 50s. Song Sun-ja, the owner of Seolkyung's entertainment show, has been engaged in martial arts since 1977, and has been taught Seolkyung and other sitting gut for 15 years by the late Hwang Ha-cheong.
  • 2010.6.8
    designated date
    ■ Icheon Turtle Play

    Among our folk culture, there is a game that is distributed only in Gyeonggi-do and Chungcheong-do, so "turtle play" is that. This turtle play takes off the water fountain on Chuseok to form a turtle, and a person enters the village and performs Gilnori, Umulgut, Village Nori, Mungut, Terjugut, Jowanggut, Daecheonggut, and Madangnori in order.

    It's a folk game.

    Compared to other folk games, it is characterized by the fact that it is usually held during Chuseok, the number of materials used to make turtles, and the fact that it is distributed only in the central inland area. It is also a Daedongnori that promotes the harmony of the village in that the villagers attend the event, from the preparation process of the play to the actual play, as well as the ritualistic nature of the village to beat out the evil spirits of the entire village and families.

    Icheon Turtle Nori is relatively well equipped with the play process and the form of objects compared to other turtle Nori in other regions, and the Icheon Turtle Nori Preservation Society provides a good survey, research, and preservation of turtle Nori. In particular, the 14th Icheon Turtle Play Festival, which was held in 2017, is dedicated to preserving the original form of the Icheon Turtle Play and protecting local folk games through the development of various contents. (Icheon Turtle Play Preservation Society http://cafe.daum.net/gg50)

    ■ Detailed description of Icheon Turtle Play

    ○ Gilnori

    In a meaningful process to announce the start of the game and boost the excitement of the players, they pay their respects to the turtle before moving to the village.

    ○ Wellgut

    Wellgut, called Samgut, is a ritual to manage springs used jointly in the village, and is a game to pray for the overflow of clear water.

    ○ Village play

    In the vacant lot in the middle of the village, a living community space for the villagers, a playground is opened to drive out all the evils and pray for the safety and prosperity of the village.

    ○ Mungut

    A gate is a passageway that connects the house and the outside. Mungut is a ritual to pray that all the blessings and goods enter the house through the gate.

    ○ Turjugut

    Behind the house, there is Jangdokdae in Ulan, and most people have a terrace next to Jangdokdae, which is believed to have a sense of grandeur here. Turjugut is a ritual to prevent evil spirits from appearing and to pray for ophthalmology and peace.

    ○ Jowanggut

    This game is played to prevent bad luck and to pray for the health of the family by serving the god of King Jowang with a ritual performed in the kitchen that oversees the diet.

    ○ Daecheonggut

    It has long been believed that the house is protected by a large grotto called 'up' on the daecheong beam. "Up" is the most conscious play in the play process because it was believed to be a divine being that protects the house, gives the house a hallway and brings bad luck.

    ○ Madang nori

    Madang Nori is the most exciting part of the play where people run and play freely, mingling with the joy of enjoying Hangawi in abundance after a year of farming and the relief that they wished good luck and prevented bad luck through turtle play.
  • 1971.6.10
    designated date
    Chwita refers to the simultaneous playing of wind and percussion instruments. Daechwita refers to a large-scale performance of chwita and seak (traditional ensemble music played with instruments with small sound volume suited to an indoor event) to announce the presence of the King or for a parade of troops.

    Chwita appear in murals dating from Goguryeo (circa 37 BC – 668 AD) and in records about Baekje (18 BC – 660 AD), which tells us that it was performed during the Three Kingdoms Period.
    Chwigakgun (a military band), which originated in the Goryeo Period (877 – 1394), continued into the Joseon Period (1392 – 1910). Seak came to be included in the military band repertoire in the mid-Joseon Period.

    The military band playing chwita and seak wore a yellow uniform with a blue band hung across the chest, and a straw hat. They played jing (large gong), janggo (hourglass-shaped drum), buk (drums), nabal (trumpets), sora (conch horns), and taepyeongso (conical wooden oboe). At the command of the leader, jing and buk start up and they are followed by the other players. Their playing gives a feeling of being brave, resonant, and magnificent.

    After the forced disbanding of the Korean troops by Japanese imperialists toward the end of the Korean Empire (1897 – 1910), “Piri Jeongak and Daechwita” has never been played formally. Some semblance of this style of music has barely been maintained by private businesses for advertisement, or by temples for rituals, but now it is almost extinct.

    Daechwita is a precious cultural heritage as the music that displays the unyielding spirit of the people of olden days.


    Change in the name: Daechwita → Piri Jeongak and Daechwita (in June 1998)
  • 2003.6.12
    designated date
    On the fifteenth day of the first full moon of the lunar year, the twill, which begins every year by dividing the lower village into the north, is a seasonal custom and a folk game of this region. A few days before the fifteenth of lunar January, children gather straws to make their own houses and steal them from other places.

    On the fifteenth of lunar January, the ritual for village guardian deity is held in Dangsan. This is to pray for the prevention of maritime accidents and the prosperity of the village by praying for a good harvest and a good harvest for a year in the semi-agricultural semi-fishing village. The trailblazes in Japanese colonial era are also completely gone.

    However, the move to restore the trailblazers began shortly after liberation. The folk play, which was stopped by the efforts of Kim Chan-jung, a local cultural researcher living in this village, has been reproduced and is now inherited by the Preservation Society of Pioneer Grasshoppers, and is also presented to tourists during the cherry blossom festival.

    The trailblazing is carried out in the order of Dangsanje, Eobulim, Pilseung Gochuk, Gossaum, Slicing, and Daljip burning. The rope used for the pioneer claw is made by hanging a four-strand rope that looks like an octopus' feet on one go. It's a number to fight hard before you scratch it and win according to the result. They fight with all their might to become a male team because they have a high chance of winning the game. When the arm and the male are determined, the two goes are connected with a latch to start the twisting. At this time, the women brought a pebble on the beach to beat the strings on their sides, and grabbed the stone wrapped in the skirt with the rope and then brushed it.

    It is believed that if Amgo wins in the slips, it will become a good harvest and a good fish. When the twine is finished, they pledge harmony by burning the moon house regardless of the outcome.

    He won the grand prize at the 25th Gyeongnam Provincial Folk Art Competition (1993.10.13), and in 1994, he also appeared as a representative of Gyeongsangnam-do at the National Folklore Competition.
  • 1976.6.15
    designated date
    Tug-of-war was held on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month as part of a farming ritual called jul-ssam.

    Giul is also called Gejul because it is like a crab's foot, and Gijulnori is also called Haesaekjeon in Chinese. As for the origin of the tug-of-war, there is no accurate record of the fact that it began when many reservoirs were built in Samcheok during the reign of King Hyeonjong of the Joseon Dynasty (1659-1674).

    On the first day of the first lunar month, Samcheokgi tug-of-war is called Sokdakjul because it is small in size and scale, with children divided into two sides and beating drums and kkwaenggwari.

    As the scale gradually grows, it will spread to the mid-term tug-of-war, which will be led by teenagers around July 8 and will be divided into coastal and mountainous areas for adults around July 15 to begin a full-fledged tug-of-war.

    There is a belief that there will be a good harvest on the winning side, but competition is fierce every year because they have to work in the true side of Suri and Embankment repair.

    Samcheokgi tug-of-war is a village festival that contains folk beliefs to prevent disasters and pray for a good harvest, and it is meaningful as a community festival to promote unity and cooperation among residents.
  • 1989.6.15
    designated date
    Cheonwangmaegi refers to the Jisinpuri, which residents of the Bisan-dong area used to do at the beginning of January every year to the kings of Gicheon, Jungcheon and Malcheon, who have been supported as gods for a long time ago. Jisinpuri is a religious village event that repels evil spirits and evil spirits by suppressing Jisin (a god in charge of the land) in the first lunar month, praying for peace in the village, good harvests, and family blessings. The folk instruments such as kkwaenggwari, Jing, drum, janggu, Soenap, and other poems wearing masks, sang Jisinpuri and sang songs from house to house.

    It is said that the heavenly trees, shrines, and mountains were located in the place where each heavenly king was located, and that the shrine contained images of the heavenly king. The process of the event will be followed by Daenaerim, the selection of a priest, Jilgut in front of the shrine, Mungut in front of the Sadangmun Gate, reading a congratulatory message, Cheonwangmaegi, and Pangut. Usually, Jisinbapgi is performed from door to door, and Cheonwangmaegi in Bisan-dong is characterized by a village ritual that ends with exciting music and dancing in the front yard of the shrine.
  • 2017.6.16
    designated date
    Goyang Bier and Hoedaji sound refers to a funeral ritual song that is being passed down around the Kimnyeong Kim Clan 寧金 집 Jipseong Village in Daehwa-ri, Songpo-myeon, Goyang.

    Kim Yu-bong (1725 years old) of Kimnyeong Kim Clan restored the tradition of the funeral of Kim Seong-gwon (1867), who was in charge of the construction of civil engineering and royal palaces.

    At that time, the size of bier was three times larger than that of ordinary merchants, and the number of full-length biers reached about 250. The mourning procession reached 5 ri (2 km) and the food served to the mourners at the time was not enough to cover 12 bags of rice.

    It was said to have been a large-scale custom.

    When a portrait is made in Daehwa-ri, Songpo-myeon, the mourning rites bow to the deceased of the bier who leaves for Jangji-dong, and the bier people call out the sound of salt and hush. When you leave the house, you will hear the sound of a badger, and you will hear the sound of voluntary bier as you walk fast or climb up a hill. When you reach the burial site, you sing the long salt fire and then put down the bier. When Gwangjung 壙中中, a pit for the tomb where the dead are placed, is established, the long sound is sung while playing the dalgu sori, Yangsan-do, Bangataryeong, Nolnori, Jutdasori, Sangsasori, and flutter.

    It is characterized by treading outside the middle of the mine when the moon is being burned in the Goyang area. This is believed to have been influenced by Joseon Dynasty royal tombs. There are many royal tombs in this area, and it is said to be a custom that originated from stepping outside the mine because it is impossible to step on the Nara.

    Currently, Kim Woo-gyu, the chairman of the conservation committee, is trying to win the event through the Goyang Sangyeo Daji Sori Preservation Association. In 2010, Wiesbaden, Germany, Carnival carried out, and the show, invited to the Japanese military sexual slavery after 2012.

    The victims' marriage is held every year.
  • 1995.6.30
    designated date
    There were three Jisos in Cheongsong that produced paper as a traditional process: Jisori in Andeok-myeon, Misa-ri in Pacheon-myeon, and Jungpyeong-ri. Gamgok Village in Singi 2-ri, Pacheon-myeon, Cheongsong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do has long been known as a paper village because of its many oak trees and clear water.

    By the 1920s, more than 20 households in this village produced hanji, and residents who did not make a living also made it a side job. However, the supply of glass windows drastically reduced the demand for glassware, and modernized various rituals used mainly for hanji, resulting in a sharp drop in the consumption of hanji, which greatly reduced the Hanji battle.

    In such a difficult situation, Yi Sang-ryong, the holder of the Seondae function, moved to Songgang-ri to continue his family business, which began on the day of his transfer from the source of the Five Dynasties, and was designated as Gyeongsangbuk-do Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 23 Cheongsong Hanji.

    His eldest son, Lee Ja-seong, is currently serving as the owner of the Cheongsong Hanjijang function, taking over the family business. Samchejeong Pavilion, the ritual house of the Byeokjin Yi Clan in Gamgok Village, Shin Ki-ri, is the ritual house and pavilion of the three brothers, Lee Seok-il, Gamcheon Lee Jae-il and Seokcheon Lee Hyang-il, who started the family business.

    Recently, the demand for traditional Korean paper has been increasing due to the use of hwaseon paper, possession, books, and wallpaper used by painters. Yi Ja-seong, the holder of the function of Cheongsong Hanjijang, Gyeongsangbuk-do Intangible Cultural Property No. 23, does not use imported mulberry trees, but collects and uses raw materials from the area of Cheongsong-gun, the birthplace of the mulberry tree, and Yecheon Yonggung.

    Lee Ja-seong not only built 6,000 square meters of mulberry field near the workshop, but also created Cheongsong Hanji Experience Center to spread Cheongsong Hanji
  • 2001.6.30
    designated date
    Anseom Danggut is a type of Punggeogut that wishes for the well-being of the village and a good harvest of fish. It is said that it began about 350 years ago, although the literature does not tell the exact origin.

    Anseom Island in Songak-myeon was originally an island in the northwest of Dangjin-gun, but it became a land-based reclamation project. Fishermen here held a ritual to pray for safety and a good harvest before going fishing. Every year from the first day of the first lunar month, Danggut is held on the first day of the first day of the first day of the first lunar month, and every other year, 제로span class='xml2' onmouseover='up2 (1206)'onmouseout='dn2(()대대대대 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어小小小小小小小 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 나누어 Soje is held in the form of spspan class='xml2' onmouseover='up2(1103)' onmouseout='dn2()'dn2()>Danggut 참여하는/spanan, in which shamans participate during the Daeje.

    The structure and character of the Anseom Dangje are the most representative of the community faith in the fishing village on the west coast, and the folklore meaning and value are very great.
  • 1987.7.1
    designated date
    This ritual is held biennially in Tongyeong and Geojedo Island to pray for the peace of the village and abundant fish. This ritual features the exorcist’s beautiful songs and inclusion of buk (drums) among the accompanying instruments. Unlike its cousin held in villages along the East Coast, this one is carried out in a serious atmosphere with few gags exchanged between the exorcist and music players or in the narratives. In some instances, spectators and drummers act out a play in the middle of the ritual.

    The exorcist’s dance performed along with the ritual in most cases is rather simple and monotonous. Cheongsinak (music to invoke the deities) and Songsinak (farewell music to the deities) are performed respectively at the start and end of the ritual, to the accompaniment of daegeum (bamboo flute).

    This ritual has little entertainment value and involves not many narratives, but it goes long on the depth of belief in deities.
  • 2000.7.1
    Specified date
    Jigyeongdajigi refers to the work of building a new house. It is a cooperative labor where the people of the neighborhood gather together, and it contains a sense of chasing and blessing disasters. Sangnoji jigyeongdajigi can be seen as originated from the traditional life of agricultural society beyond the simple meaning of turdajigi.

    The Cheorwon Sangnoriji Gyeongdajigi can be divided into three fields: ritual, jigyeongdajigi, and yeoheung nori. Proposal is a shamanistic ritual that aims to prevent the anger of the intellect that can be caused by touching the ground before engaging in a war of nerves. Jisin is active only at night, so he lights a torch in the evening, and the owner becomes Jeju, reads a congratulatory message and performs a rite. After the ritual, people who participated in the jigyeongdajigi put the jigyeongdol in the middle and hold the jigyeongjipjari line and strengthen the site. As you iron out the horizon, you sing the labor songs of the jigsaw and phlegm, and the first paragraph of the song is about the origin of the region, the environment of the house, the history of the landlord, and so on, and so on, improvising according to the circumstances. When the jigyeong daggi is over, it leads to a play of entertainment and plays with alcohol and food until late at night.

    The Cheorwon Sangnori Gyeongdajigi offers a glimpse of the traditional folk culture and tradition of agricultural life.
  • 1999.7.1
    designated date
    General Nam Yi was born in 1441 (the 23rd year of King Sejong's reign), passed the military service at the age of 17, defeated Yi Si-ae's orchids and Yeo Jin-jok at the age of 26, but was beheaded at the young age of 27 due to Yu Ja-gwang's slander. The Nami General Military Party (NAMI) is a ritual held every year after building a shrine about 300 years ago to console the general's spirit and honor his loyalty, feeling sorry for the loss of his life due to the dew of his prison sentence. On October 1, the festival was held to celebrate the eve of the festival, and residents were relieved of their worries, worries, and well-being, which naturally cemented the local folk religion.

    When Nami General's Sadang Festival begins, geolippae visit each house with Nongak and pay for the rite. Rather than simply a geolip of a nongak band, it is a religious ritual that corresponds to village dolgigut, in which a shaman participates to pray for each house. In the past, Danggut used to serve flowers as a ritual for spirits that brought them to the main hall, but now it has developed into a flower lantern event, marching from the Dangjip in Sancheon-dong to the shrine and holding a ritual at the shrine. The Nami General Military Party is held as a ritual ceremony in accordance with the ritual music of musicians, followed by a shaman rite, which is similar in form to the Gangneung Danoje Festival and the Eunsan Byeolsinje Festival. However, the general procession is actually equivalent to a journey to the village of God by taking a walk around the village with a new flower.

    In the midst of the disappearance of village ritual in modern times, the Sadang Festival in Nami-gun is meaningful in that it preserves its original appearance, and it has become a festive village ritual with active cooperation and participation from residents.

    bbb※※ For detailed information on the above cultural assets, please refer to the Seoul Metropolitan Government Department of Historical and Cultural Heritage (202-2133-2616). </bb
  • 1987.7.2
    designated date
    The sound of Dadaepo's hoo-ri is a labor song sung by the beach while hoo-ri-jil for anchovies, accompanied by the movement according to the sequence of work. Singing individually or collectively as one of the folk songs, the song may vary depending on the region.

    Dadaepo Huri is a pre-release style in which one person sings a song and several others sing it. The story is about the sound of carrying a net into a fishing ground and loading it onto a boat, the dragon-king ritual, the rowing of a fishing boat, the sound of fishermen singing while pulling a string of rice from both sides, the sound of a net that they sing while picking a net, and the sound of a lyric that they sing while carrying anchovies into a storage container.

    Dadaepo Huali is a folk song with characteristics of this area, and it reproduces and preserves the words and methods required to catch anchovies, and has high folk, musical, and cultural value. Currently, the Dadaepo Hoorisori Preservation Society is striving to win and distribute the song.