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K-CULTURAL HERITAGE

Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 1970.7.22
    designated date
    Gossaum Nori (Loop Fight) is a fierce type of men’s game performed in Chilseok Village, Daechon-dong, Gwangju around the full-moon period of January 15 on the lunar calendar.

    “Go” in Gossaum means a tall loop-shaped structure made of twisted straw rope that two opposing groups of males push against each other. Upon finishing preparations for the “battle,” including the making of the go (loop), villagers gather together, hold a sacrificial rite, and pay visits to houses for madangbalbigut (performance of treading on the courtyard). They march, playing farmers’ music to create a joyous atmosphere.

    Each group raises and lowers the go to show off that it can outdo the other in the battle. The two leaders, seated at the top of the go, give commands to their people carrying the go, while their lieutenants cheer on the members of their group by waving flags.

    The group that makes the opponents’ go touch the ground wins the battle. If the battle ends in a draw, the groups meet again on February 1 and engage in a tug-of-war with the straw rope used to make the go.

    Gossaum has been handed down as a rite of praying for a good year for crops and as an event intended to bolster the spirit of collaboration among villagers. The name of the event was changed to Gwangju Chilseok Gossaum Nori in September 2005 to distinguish it from similar games held elsewhere and also to indicate the name of the village designated as the site for this important intangible cultural heritage.
  • 1970.7.22
    designated date
    Talchum (mask dance) was performed across the country up to the early Joseon Period (1392 – 1910). Gangnyeong Talchum (Mask Dance Drama of Gangneung) is a type of Sandae Dogamgeuk, which was performed at the Royal Palace. After the mask dance drama came to be no longer performed there by 1634 (the 12th year of King Injo’s reign), it was still enjoyed as a pastime by ordinary people.

    The Mask Dance Drama of Gangnyeong is performed on Dano (May 5 on the lunar calendar) in Gangnyeong-eup, Hwanghaenam-do, and dates perhaps from the late Joseon Period.

    The event is composed of seven acts, Lion Dance, Malttugi Dance, Mokjung Dance, Sangjwa Dance, Dance of the Nobleman and Malttugi, Dance of Chwibari and the Old Monk, and Dance of the Old Couple.

    Prior to the performance, the 20 members of the troupe march, playing music to entertain spectators along the road. The play includes satire about such issues as nobles harassing commoners, depraved monks, and male chauvinism as shown in the custom of allowing a man to take plural wives.

    Dance movements are slow. The main dance is Jangsamchum (Long Sleeve Dance). The rhythms used are dodeuri, taryeong, and jajin gutgeori. Thirty-plus types of narration are used, each of them using its unique rhythm.

    The parts concerning three brothers of a noble family talking about the essentials of the noble class or calling Malttugi, or Malttugi’s gag are similar to those of Ogwangdae (Mask Dance Drama) of Gyeongnam-do. The scene of an old female clown turning a spinning wheel is similar to that of Ogwangdae of Gasan. These similarities have a very important significance in the handing-down of mask dance in the country.

    Performers wearing masks displaying realistic facial expressions and engaging in elegant and slow dancing movements are features of Gangnyeong Talchum, which distinguish it from Bongsan Talchum, another kind of mask dance performed in Hwanghae-do.
  • 1970.7.22
    designated date
    Jogakjang refers to the skill of metal engraving or to the artisan who does it.

    Unearthed artifacts lead us to guess that metal engraving was first attempted during the Bronze Age. Diverse engraving techniques were used during the Three Kingdoms Period (57 BC – 668 AD), and they made noticeable developments during the Goryeo Period (877 – 1394).

    During the Joseon Period (1392 – 1910), metal handicrafts started to develop as an independent sector. Techniques used in metal engraving include depressed engraving, bratticing, relief engraving, 3D engraving, and inlaying.

    Materials used are gold, silver, iron, lead, zinc, and tin. Silver is the most commonly used. Favorite designs used are scenery, flowers, birds, clouds, dragons and vines.

    Esthetic quality or propitiousness became the criteria for selection of the patterns of metal engraving in the later Joseon Period and thereafter.
  • 2012.7.23
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    Beopseongpo Danoje is a traditional folk festival held annually around Dano, or the fifth day of the fifth lunar month, in the Beopseongpo area of Yeonggwang-gun, Jeollanam-do.

    During the Joseon Period, Beopseongpo was one of the major trading areas on the Korean Peninsula due to the presence of a warehouse for storing tax grains and a famous seasonal fish market selling yellow corvinas. Thanks to these favorable social and economic circumstances, a large open-air market usually opened whenever the fish market was held, and a local folk festival naturally developed in this area as a result.

    The festival features diverse programs related to the well-preserved characteristics and traditions of the Beopseongpo area, such as the dragon king ritual held for fishermen’s safety, women’s boating, and artistic competitions in the nearby forest.
  • 2009.7.24
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    Changminyo was called a popular folk song because it was called by many people in a large area, and it was also called japyo in combination with folk songs that had the characteristics of a play song. These days, the joy of singing is not inherently different from the joy of dancing or playing yut, so the songs that are sung to enjoy the song itself are included in the category of yuhuiyo. However, in reality, it is difficult for one class name to satisfy every case, so each writer uses a different name depending on the case. In Jeju, the transmission of Changmin songs is very active, and there are more than 50 kinds of songs, including "Odoltogi," "Yahong," "Neoyeong Nayoung," "Shinmok Satayeong," "Bongji," "Sancheon Chomok," "Dongpunga," "Jungtaryeong," "Jilgunak," "Yongcheon Gumyeong" and "Love Song."
  • 2014.7.24
    designated date
    < The status of the Yongjondang Song Preservation Society >

    Number of members: 70 people

    市 Designated as Intangible Cultural Property No. 22 (Yongjeon Deul Song): July 24, 2014.

    Origin: Deul-sori (labor song) that was sung in Yongjeon-dong until the end of the 1960s, but was discontinued, former Chairman Kim Dong-eon and the late Ji Chun-sang, honorary professor at Chonnam National University, discovered Jae-hyun ("99.6) after two years of testimony.

    Group name: Jisan Yongjeondeul Song Preservation Society → Sa) Jisan Yongjeondeul Sound Preservation Society

    → 사)용전들노래보존회('12.6)

    Major water performance

    - Grand Prize for the 1st ('99.7) and 9th ('07.6) Gwangju Folk Arts Festival

    - The 40th Korean Folk Arts Festival Award (Prime Minister of State): '99.7

    - The 48th Korean Folk Arts Festival Gold Award (Minister of Culture and Tourism Award): '07.6

    - The 56th Korean Folk Arts Festival Gold Award (Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism Award): '15.10
  • 1984.7.25
    designated date
    Nongak is the music played by farmers when they squeeze their dure and play percussion instruments such as kkwaenggwari, Jingo, Jango, and drum. According to the purpose of performing nongak, the types can be divided into Dangsan Gut, Madang Bapgi, Gulip Gut, Duregut, Pangut, Kiuje Gut, and Baegut. If classified according to regional characteristics, they are divided into Gyeonggi Nongak, Yeongdong Nongak, Honam Jwado Nongak, Gyeongnam Nongak, and Gyeongbuk Nongak.

    It is said that Gosan Nongak has been practiced during a village ritual on the fifteenth of lunar January every year since the time of the village's development. The process of nongak is led by farming tools, and the road hawks, led by gong, drum, janggu, sangmo, and japchaek, which run lightly to the place where nongak is performed, and the dungdeokgungungung, which turns clockwise by making a Taegeuk pattern, turns round a circle and draws two concentric circles according to the direction of sangsoe, and dances according to the rhythm of sangsoe.In the order of , the players of the same musical instrument come out to play in the middle of the circle and play Beopgo play.

    The characteristic of Gosan Nongak is that it maintains its native and deep-rooted nongak without losing its traditional beauty, and that there is a chicken-throwing yard that is not found in other nongak nori.
  • 1984.7.25
    designated date
    Nalmoe Book Dance is a drum dance inherited from the Bisan-dong area of Daegu. The exact origin is unknown, but the mountain was called 'Nalmoe' because it was a mountain that fell to the ground and became a garden after being struck by a woman's scream. In the past, when a local government official died, the people danced drums in spring and autumn to commemorate it.

    The Nalmoe Book Dance wears a white trouser jacket, a navy blue combat uniform, and a white band around its head. Only drums are used as musical instruments and dance to Gyeongsang-do's signature deotbaegi rhythm (gutgeori rhythm). The production process consists of Dengdeokgungi, Jabandeukyi (Banjikgut), Jabandeukgi, Tadaegi, Hehegut, Modumgut, Salpugut, and Deutbaegi dance.

    The Nalmoe Book Dance is a folk dance that shows a cross-section of the lives and emotions of our ancestors, and the entertainment owner Yoon Jong-gon continues the tradition.
  • 1998.7.25
    Specified date
    Seolwi seolgyeong, also known as seolgyeong, refers to the place where the ritual site of "span class='xml2' onmouseover='up2 (1979)' onmouseout='dn2()d Beopsa Temple( is decorated with paper.

    In order to create a snow scene site, it is made by cutting off the images of the deity, bodhisattva, amulets, and flower patterns. This is not just a decoration of the exorcism hall, but a tool to trap ghosts. It is made by cutting or cutting a window paper with scissors or knives. The dice is a mixture of red minerals that can be used to write the name of a spirit, draw pictures, and add talisman. Snowpiercer is sometimes divided into large and single snowscapes according to their size. In the past, snowstorms were distributed throughout the country, but now only in Chungcheong-do, and are mixed with the so-called "Sungut" in other regions.

    Seolwi Seolgyeong was designated as an intangible cultural asset to preserve the folk belief and traditional culture.
  • 2007.7.27
    Specified date
    The origin of Gochang Ogeori Dangsanje has long been maintained as the village guardian mountain of a natural body built in five rooms to fill the empty space of Gochang, but in the late Joseon Dynasty (1790s), due to the devastating flood damage in Jeolla-do, <span class='xml2'onmouse='up2(5875out') on on on on on on on on on on on====================================================The low-lying Dangsan in the streets, Zhuang, and Hageori has been completed.

    In addition to its significance as a target of village belief, it is also famous for its feng shui collective religious pictorials of the town, which are the only family shrine in the country. The Ogeori Dangsanje Preservation Society has reproduced the five-way Dangsanje Festival and Daeboreum folk games every year to protect the tradition and promote the pride of the residents.
  • 2014.7.28
    designated date
    Yeongsanjae is a form of 49jae (a ritual held on the 49th day of the death of a person), a ritual in which the soul believes in and relies on Buddhism to make it to paradise.

    It is also known as the "Yeongsanjakbeop (법法 대표적인) Act" (法法) as a representative rite of Buddhist Cheondoism.Yeongsanjae, the 50th Important Literary Cultural Property, has been preserved and handed down to this day by the Yeongsan Production Act 2,500 years ago.

    In recognition of its value, UNESCO was listed as a World Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2009. In July 2014, Gwangju Metropolitan City designated 'Gwangju Yeongsanjae' as the city's cultural heritage No. 23.
  • 2005.7.28
    designated date
    Kim Sam-sik was born on September 9, 1946 at 131 Naseori, Nongam-myeon, Mungyeong-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do. At the age of 9, he lost his father and went to a dak factory run by his cousin Yoo Young-woon (male, 80 years old, Galdong-ri, Nongam-myeon) to work on making hanji, and has been a close relationship with Hanji for 48 years now.

    Thirty years ago, there were about 20 hanji factories in Mungyeong, but now there is only one run by Kim Sam-sik.Traditional hanji is too difficult to produce, with all the work done manually, and there are many difficulties in producing traditional hanji due to the distribution of general paper due to the development of the modern paper industry, and the reduction of the acceptance of traditional hanji due to the distribution of modified hanji using cheap imported materials.

    Despite these social conditions, the company only insists on producing traditional hanji (soji), Imulji, Samhapji, Dujangmui, and Seokjangmui (Jangpanji) using traditional buckwheat straw ashes.

    In addition, with the belief that "our species should be the dacha tree grown on our soil," he also creates quality traditional hanji from the nature of our country, the dachapult, clear water and abundant solar energy, and supplies it to customers who know his true craftsmanship.

    In particular, he prepared a new workshop at his home in 1999, which means "planting the truth, planting conscience, and planting tradition will be a branch of traditional Korean paper." He also developed a drying rack that uses boilers to reduce fuel costs, setting aside all his work and lecturing on traditional Korean paper without missing an explanation of traditional Korean paper, showing any enthusiasm for the promotion of traditional Korean paper.

    Currently, he is making hanji with his wife Park Geum-ja and son Chun-ho, and his only successor, Chun-ho, is concentrating on the technology transfer of traditional hanji, helping his father make hanji.

    With traditional Korean paper rapidly disappearing, it is a traditional Korean paper representing the western region in addition to Cheongsongji in the eastern region.
  • 2005.7.28
    designated date
    This sound combines 11 kinds of farming songs sung in Jain-myeon, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and the general characteristics of the farming songs of Gyeongsang-do, Menarijo and Seotbaegi rhythm, are still alive.

    While Zain is located in the inland area of Gyeongsang-do and has maintained its own melody.

    In addition, the Gyeongsang-do area has a strong and rugged dynamic character, resembling the local residents' tone and accent.
  • 2010.7.30
    designated date
    The voice refers to a person who has the ability to make traditional Korean combs, and the combs have a long history, with wooden combs found in the Nakrang ruins and bamboo combs in the Three Kingdoms Period, and in the Unified Silla Period, chuchil combs and hwagak combs passed down to this day.

    In particular, the Gyeongguk daejeon records the development of traditional woodworking techniques and the differentiation of professional craftsmen, including pasture, sculpture, individual burial, voice, wood burial, pungmuljang, pyojang, blacksmith, constipation, and umbrella fields.

    The main ingredients of the comb (allebit) are jujube, apricot, bacchus, walnut, and cedar, and other traditional hardwoods, and are decorated with bamboo, auricular, aphoroid, and ivory.

    The method of production 1) is to turn the selected tree down to a suitable thickness and dry it sufficiently 2) The dry tree is cut to the size of the comb along the straightening pattern (3) with a silk pad, then the shape of the comb is fixed to the comb frame with a pattern, and 5) a saljab is used to trim the comb and cut the outer shape with a spinning saw, and a basic blade (cut with a spinning saw)).Draw a picture of the back of a piece of cloth that is thinly trimmed by mm to 2mm, cut accordingly, attached to the body with a beret, polished with fine sandpaper, 10) and decorated (chilbo, silver, and knot) the comb that has been finished with the final touch, and the work is completed when the work.
  • 1999.7.31
    Jigeonori is a folk game using jigae, which was a traditional vehicle of Korea. In rural and mountainous villages, where there were many mountains and no separate roads, forklifts were an essential means of transportation. In Yanggu, Gangwon-do, they played a game using snow crabs to forget the hardships and monotony of labor and to gain pleasure.

    Yanggu Dolsanryeonggeori Nori includes a walk-by fight and a group bier. A fork fight is a game of climbing on two legs of a forklift, holding its head tightly, walking, hitting the opponent and knocking him down. The bier-play ties the pieces together to make a bier and carry it on, and sings the composed bier, pushing the bier of the opponent's bier. After a game, the losing team carries the winning team's losing streak.

    In the bier game, there is a hoedaji nori, which is a playful play of the custom of ironing pits at funerals, singing hoedaji sounds and playing with a clapper's stick. What's interesting is that Gaegwacheonseon's moral message that a person who is unfaithful or unfriendly during the hoedaji play and who does not cooperate with the village affairs are chosen as Hoedaji characters and that the person's heart becomes better after playing.

    Yanggu Dolsanryeong Gegi Nori is a unique mountain folk play made by combining traditional funeral rituals and earth crabs, and is only seen in mountains in Gangwon-do.