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Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 1990.10.10
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    Salpurichum refers to a dance extemporaneously performed by an exorcist to put an end to bad luck. It is called Dosalpurichum or Heoteunchum. The name salpuri was first used by the traditional dancer Han Seong-jun at his theater performances in 1903. The dancer performs to salpuri music in a white skirt and jacket, with a white handkerchief in hand to express graciousness and sentiment. It is said that the present-day salpurichum is one handed down in Gyeonggi-do and Jeolla-do Provinces. With the stabilization of the country toward the mid Joseon Dynasty and invigoration of the culture of commoners, it developed as a dance performed by clowns. Exorcism rites were prohibited during the colonial period (1910 – 1945) and this exorcism dance came to develop purely as an artistic dance. Salpurichum is a classic dance with high artistic value, expressing popular sentiment through beautiful movements and transforming sorrow into delight.
  • 1990.10.10
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    This is a tutelary rite held in early January on the lunar calendar, or in spring or fall annually, or biennially or triennially near Seoul or Suwon or Incheon, to pray for peace and a good harvest. At present, a complete version of the rite can be seen only in Jangmal, Bucheon. The shrine for village guardians in the pine forest, which is more than 300 years old, tells us that the exorcism rite started during the Joseon Period (1392 – 1910). The rite starts in the morning and finishes the next day morning. It is performed by a hereditary exorcist skilled in songs and dances. Male exorcists liven up the atmosphere, doing tightrope walking, cracking jokes and displaying various feats. Songs and dances by gisaeng (female entertainers) used to be included, but they have disappeared. Participation of male exorcists (called Hwaraengi) in the rite distinguishes Gyeonggi-do Dodanggut from those performed in other areas. Music and rhythms used in this rite follow those of pansori (epic chant). Displaying high artistic quality, Gyeonggi-do Dodanggut is regarded as a valuable source material for anyone studying the country’s traditional culture.
  • 1984.10.15
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    Records tell us that on the Korean Peninsula, embroidery started during the Three Kingdoms Period (circa 57 BC – 668 AD). During the Goryeo Period (877 – 1394), the practice became so widespread that it was adopted even on the clothes of ordinary people. As a result, embroidery was prohibited several times. With the start of the Joseon Period (1392 – 1910), the practice developed further and was divided into royal embroidery, exquisitely made by skilled court ladies, and the others. Looking at how a piece of embroidery is made, first the cloth to work on is fixed onto a frame and a rough sketch is made on it. Upon the completion of embroidery, the frame is shaken to remove dust. Then, a thin layer of paste is applied to the back of the embroidered surface so as not to let the stitches scatter. The embroidered piece is then placed in the shade to dry and removed from the frame. Embroidery has developed as a reflection of Koreans’ living environment, customs, and beliefs.
  • 2000.10.19
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    Sajikdaeje is a national rite given to the god of land and grain, while Sajik means the god of land, and Jik means the god of grain. In ancient times, when a country was established, a ritual was held to pray for the people to live comfortably in the land and grain gods. The memorial service for the resignation, which has been held since the Three Kingdoms Period, offers a glimpse into our ancestors' gratitude for nature.

    King Taejo of the Joseon Dynasty established Jongmyo Shrine and Sajikdan Altar (Historic Site No. 121) along with the royal palace to set up Jongmyo Shrine on the east side of Gyeongbokgung Palace, Sajikdan Altar on the west, and Sajikdan Altar in each province to pray for the comfort and good harvest of the people. Sajikdan has assigned divisions (Taesasin and Futosin) and direct divisions (Tajiksin and Hujiksin) to the east and west). The ancestral tablets of Taiji and Taijik face north to the south of the Dansang, the huto god to the left of the Taoist god, and the latter to the left of Taijiksin.

    Usually, ancestral rites were held in February and August, and a rain ritual was held in the event of a major national crisis or drought. The procedures and formalities for holding ancestral rites have changed little by little over time, but gradually we moved away from the stage of imitating the Chinese ways and had our own examples. Various kinds of grain including raw meat of cattle, pigs, and sheep are prepared today, and the rituals are held in the order of spirits, emperors, jinchan, choheonrye, aheonrye, Jongheonrye, Eokbokrye, Cheolbyeondu, Songsin, and Mangye (Mangye).

    The music, dance, food, clothing, and rituals used in Sajikje, as well as our own ritual procedures for holding rituals, help us understand traditional culture. In 1894 (the 31st year of King Gojong's reign), the system was changed to the new government system, and was abolished by Japan's coercion in the 2nd year of King Sunjong's reign (1908). Since then, it was restored in October 1988 through the testimony of the late Yi Eun-pyo, who was the holder of the Jongmyo Jeryeondae. Currently, the Sajik Daejebongsa Committee, located within the Jeonju Yi Clan, preserves and inherits the Sajik Daeje.
  • 2010.10.21
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    Gurye Jansu Nongak is a nongak handed down from Sinchon Village in Sinwol-ri, Gurye-eup, Gurye-gun, and has the characteristics and characteristics of Honam Jwa-do Nongak.

    This nongak is basically composed of Dangsan Jemanggut, Madangbapgi, and Panggut, and it retains its tradition as a village rite. Dangsan Jemanggut consists of a farming band performing a ritual at 10 a.m. every year on the day of the first lunar month.

    After this rite, the Nongak band went to each house in the village and played Madangbapgi to defeat the evil spirits, which led to the participation of all villagers.례 Gurye Jansu Nongak is not handed down by a professional nongak group, but is a village nongak, which is run mainly by villagers. In the past, Jansu Nongak was so famous that its reputation was known not only in Gurye but also in neighboring Suncheon and Namwon.

    In the past, documents related to the operation of nongak are also presented, including the "Nongakwi Family Rule" and the "Nongakwi Family Gyejae Reservoir" written since 1954, which record the principles and financial status of nongak.
  • 2008.10.21
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    ''번장' refers to a craftsman who connects tiles on the roof tiles. Although it is not known exactly when tiles were used in Korea, it is presumed that they were used in earnest from the Three Kingdoms Period. Therefore, bungewagong started from this period.

    Later, tile technology from the Three Kingdoms Period was further developed, and according to records, there was a craftsman named Dr. Wa, who went to Japan to deliver tile technology. During the Joseon Dynasty, '와서와서' was installed in the first year of King Taejo (1392) to produce tiles. In the sixth year of King Taejong's reign (1406), roof tiles were supplied from 'Byulwayo'. In Byulwayo, Buddhist monks, including wajang, were also assigned to produce tiles on a large scale.

    There are two main types of wagong, one of which is called "wagong" or "wajang" as a tile maker, and the name "wagwakjang" was also used because a brick-making craftsman made it with a tile. The tile-roofing craftsman is called 'Gaejang', which is a name given to distinguish the tile-roofing craftsmanship.

    The tile-making craftsman is called the "Bunwa-gong" because the tile-covering work is called the "Bunwa-gong" and the tile-covering work is called the "Bunwa-gong." The roof is a building element that forms Korean architecture and is one of the most expressive parts of the tradition of Korean architecture, and it is also the most beautiful part of Korean wooden architecture. The roof of a tile is one of the most important characteristics of traditional Korean architecture, and the shape of the roof depends on the bundle technology.
  • 1986.11.1
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    Seokjeondaeje is a ritual held at Munmyo Shrine, which honors Confucius, and is also called Munmyo Daeje or Seokjeonje (a ritual for raising meat and playing music). There is no record of when Confucianism was introduced to Korea, but it is assumed that the ritual was conducted in accordance with the ritual customs of ancient China based on the record that Taehak (National University for Confucian Education) was established in the second year (372) of King Sosurim of Goguryeo.

    Seokjeon Daeje is held every February and August in memory of the virtues of Confucius and other saints. The procedure is carried out in the order of Yeongsinrye, Jeon Lungrye, Choheonrye, Gongak, Ahheonrye, Jongheonrye, Eokbokrye, Cheolbyeon, Song Sinrye and Mangjae. Music is called Munmyo Jeryeak, which is a Daesung aak that collectively refers to instrumental music, vocal music and dance, and only eight sub-acids are used, and two bands of dungga and Hunga are played alternately according to the procedure.

    Currently, 15 palaces including Songs of Songs and Imjonggungs were adopted during the reign of King Sejong (r. 1418-1450) during the early Joseon Dynasty, including Songsingok, Hwangjonggung Palace, and Songsin Hyeopjonggung Palace.

    Seokjeon Daeje is a national event, which is held in a quiet and solemn atmosphere, and has a comprehensive artistic character where music is played and dance is accompanied.
  • 1986.11.1
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    Munbaeju is a liquor handed down from Pyeongan-do and is named after it because the scent of alcohol is the same as that of the tree.

    Munbaeju is said to have used underground water from the limestone stratum in the Daedonggang River basin in Pyongyang during the Liberation War. The raw materials are wheat, cramped rice, and sorghum, and the main ingredient of yeast is wheat.

    The color of the liquor is light yellowish brown and has a strong scent, and the alcohol level is about 40 degrees, but the distilled and matured Moonbaeju reaches 48.1 degrees, so it can be stored for a long time.

    It is usually aged for six months to one year, and it is characterized by the scent of the tree without any use of the fruit of the tree.
  • 1986.11.1
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    A fragrant liquor mixed with azalea petals, azalea flowers are also called dugyeonhwa, or dugyeonju.

    There is a legend related to Bok-gyeom, a founding contributor to Goryeo. His young daughter went up to Mount Amisan and prayed for 100 days when she could not recover from all the good medicine she had taken. A new vessel appeared and said, "It is only effective if you make alcohol with azalea flowers blooming on Amisan Mountain, but it is made of water from Ansam (now behind Myeoncheon Elementary School) and drink it 100 days later and plant two ginkgo trees in the garden." The daughter said that her father's illness was cured when she did it the same way.

    The color of the alcohol is light yellowish brown, sweet and viscous, with little sourness and noy smell, and the smell of azalea is excellent. The alcohol level is about 21 degrees. It is said to be effective in promoting blood circulation and recovering from fatigue, especially in preventing adult diseases by lowering cholesterol. However, azalea's flower wine contains toxic substances, so be careful not to mix it with the wine when you soak it.
  • 1986.11.1
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    It is a traditional liquor made from generation to generation at the richest man's house in Gyodong, Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang Province. Choi Guk-jun was the first person to make Gyeongju Beopju, and he was said to have served as the chief monk of Saongwon, who was in charge of royal food during King Sukjong's reign (1674-1720).

    When making Beopju, the well in the Choi family's yard is used. The amount and temperature of the water are almost constant throughout the four seasons, and it has long been known for its good taste.

    When you make alcohol, boil the water and cool it down. The main ingredient of Beopju is the native glutinous rice and pure grain made of water, yeast and rice, the color is bright and transparent, and has a distinctive fragrance, sweetness, and a slight sour taste. The alcohol level is 16-18 degrees.

    The biggest feature of the manufacturing method is that the understatement is first made, and then, based on this, the second fermentation process is carried out to ripen the original liquor. Therefore, it takes about 100 days to manufacture and can be stored for more than a year with the temperature alone.
  • 1996.11.1
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    Wooden woodblocks engraved with letters or pictures on wooden boards are called individual or calligraphy, and woodblocks are called woodblocks for printing purposes. The process of printing letters in reverse and printing them according to the printing method is also called each person, and the person with the technique is called each person's own head or head of angle.

    Each of them had a front-line period centering on the temple, with the Silla Dynasty's "Mugujeonggwangdae dalani Sutra," known as the oldest woodblock-printed book, and the existing "Palman Tripitaka Koreana." During the Joseon Dynasty, many woodblock prints were published, including the original Hunminjeongeum. Each chapter's ability is measured by traces of dead skin cells, the balance of letters, and the absence of incorrect letters or strokes. If something is wrongly carved, only the wrong part of the letter is dug up and another tree is cut in and carved again.

    On the other hand, it is common for buildings in various palaces, temples, and temples to hang signboards on trees, and most buildings were hung with signboards. It was also the job of each leader to make an angle.

    In the late Joseon Dynasty, there was a very low level of sophistication, but there was no alternative to woodblock printing, so it was still highly dependent on woodblock printing. Later, with the introduction of Japanese colonial era photography and new printing, traditional woodblock printing quickly disappeared. In recent years, the introduction of Western printing techniques has led to rapid decline, leading to the continued existence of wooden-floored plaques carved on the signboard of the building and the inscription of a famous calligrapher.
  • 1973.11.5
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    Yeongsanjae is a form of 49jae (a ritual held on the 49th day of human death), a ritual in which the spirit lives in paradise by believing in and relying on Buddhism. It has a symbolic meaning of reproducing the Yeongsan Recitation, which was performed by Sakyamuni on Yeongchisan Mountain. Yeongsanjae is also known as the "Yeongsanjakbeop" as a representative rite of Buddhist Cheondoism. The origin is unclear, but according to Yi Neung-hwa's "Chosun Buddhist Temple," it was already practiced during the early Joseon Period.

    Yeongsanjae starts by hanging Yeongsanhoesangdo outdoors to symbolize the place where the altar is made. A procession ceremony is held to bring the objects of faith from outside the temple, where various instruments such as haegeum, drum, janggu, and geomungo are played to praise the meritorious deeds of the Buddha, and the bar dance, butterfly dance, and Beopgo dance are performed. After the subject of faith is moved, various examples are provided to pray for wishes and offer sacrifices to the soul.

    Finally, there is a ceremony to send back the objects of faith, and where the altar was built, all the public went around in a row to practice solitude and so on. It used to take place three days and nights, but in recent years it has been scaled down for one day.

    Yeongsanjae is one of the traditional cultures, and it is valuable as a solemn Buddhist ritual in which both the living and the dead can realize the true truth of Buddha and reach the point where they can escape from anguish and anguish and participate in the public, not the performance.
  • 1973.11.5
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    Namdo Deul Song refers to a song sung by farmers in Jindo, Jeollanam-do, which consists of a large number of rice paddies and field songs.

    When the rice paddies are poked, the mooring sounds are sung; when the rice paddies are planted, the sound of nails is sung; and when the rice paddies are lavered, the sound of a croaker is sung. When farmers enter the village after Gimmaegi, they call the street cocks. Some people call Jindo Arirang for entertainment. Farmers' singing and farming activities have long been seen in every town, but songs in the southwestern part of Jeolla Province are especially diverse and have excellent musicality.

    In addition, Jindo-gun's rice paddies have a simpler sound than other parts of Jeollanam-do, as the soil is fertile and the paddy fields are tied by hand without having to be covered by hand. The fieldwork songs include bean field songs that are sung by hanging bean fields and Miyeong field songs that are sung while working on cotton fields.

    Namdo Deul Song is a song with a deep local color and very exciting melody.
  • 1969.11.10
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    The Korean traditional music is composed of sijo poems (Korean traditional poetry) and sung to orchestral accompaniment. It is also known as 'Sakdaeyeop' or 'Song'.

    The original version of the song is Mandaeyeop, Jung Daeyeop, and Sakdaeyeop, but the slow song, Mandaeyeop, disappeared before the reign of King Yeongjo (r. 1724-1776), and Jungdaeyeop (r. 1724-1776), and Jungdaeyeop (r. 1724-1676), which was not sung at the end of the Joseon Dynasty.

    The current song is derived from the "Sakdaeyeop," a fast song that appeared since the late Joseon Dynasty, and various rhythmical related songs have formed a five-piece collection of songs.

    Currently, 41 songs are handed down, including the Ujo and the Gyemyeonjo, 26 male and 15 female songs, but the female versions of the male and female songs are slightly modified so that women can sing the male and female songs, which are almost identical to the male chant. However, there is a difference between the melody that shows the delicacy of the female singer and the low-pitched voice.

    According to the format, a poem is divided into five chapters, and the prelude, a rental note, and a second, three, three, four, and five chapters are repeated. The highly organized and well-organized performance consists of geomungo, gayageum, haegeum, daegeum, danso, and janggu.

    Songs have been in existence for many years without change, and are of high artistic value that have been handed down by experts compared to other music being popular.
  • 1992.11.10
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    Soban is a small table of dishes that is used for various purposes from Korean diet to ritual ceremonies. The art of making soban or its craftsman is called sobanjang.

    Various types of tomb murals such as the Gakjeochong Tomb and the Dance Tomb of Goguryeo were found in various types of tomb murals. Records such as "Samguk Sagi," "Byeolsa" and "Gyeongguk Daejeon" indicate that the state-affiliated organizations were divided into two groups to produce the paintings. During the Joseon Dynasty, Buddhist statues were mainly used rather than statues due to the influence of Confucian ideology, and small and large statues were needed for various purposes such as rituals and weddings, which naturally led to the development of small and medium-sized soban production.

    The type of soban is classified into about 60 types depending on the area, type, and use of the soban. Haeju-ban, Naju-ban, Tongyeong-ban, Chungju-ban, and Gangwon-do. Haeju-ban is a sculpture-oriented soban, Naju-ban is a medium-sized soban, and Tongyeong-based soban is a rhyme-oriented one. In addition, in terms of bridge shape, Jukjeol-type (bamboo-shaped), Hojok-type (tiger-shaped), and Gujok-type (dog-shaped) in Gangwon-do and Gyeonggi-do are the main features.