K-Cultural Heritage 7 Page > Little Korea

K-CULTURAL HERITAGE

Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 1985.12.1
    designated date
    Pyeongtaek has long been rich in agricultural products because it has a wide field called Sosatdeul, which has become an important background for Pyeongtaek Nongak.

    In addition, Cheongnyongsa Temple near Pyeongtaek became the base of Sadangpae early on, and their nongak developed greatly at the end of the Joseon Dynasty. Therefore, Pyeongtaek Nongak is both a dure nongak and a geolippae nongak (the work of the masses playing gong and begging each other).

    The instruments used in nongak include kkwaenggwari, gong, drum, bucku, family register, and trumpet. The formation consists of Yeonggi-su, Nonggi-su, Naepal-su, Hojeok-su, Sangsoe, Buyeo, Sangjang-gu, Sangjang-gu, Sangjang-gu, Bubu, Jongbu, Jongbu-gu, Jongbu, Chilmu-dong, Chilmu-dong, Jungae, and Yangban.

    Nongak players wear costumes worn by military graduates in the past, wear colored bands on top of them, and wear a hat or cone hat on their heads. In terms of musical instruments, the gongs and drums are smaller than other regions, and there is no distinction between Sogo and Beopgo.

    The cover of the melody is clear, and the presence of songgut is also unique. In addition, Gilgunakchilchae is a genre only seen in Gyeonggi Nongak, and Gilgunakchilchae in Pyeongtaek Nongak is distinguished from other regions.

    Pyeongtaek Nongak is a high-quality nongak that is based on the simple tradition of dure nongak, but is composed of a combination of professional performances by namsadangpae entertainers who are highly performing, and Mudong Nori (a child dancing on an adult's wooden horse) was developed in particular.
  • 1985.12.1
    designated date
    Referring to farmers’ music that has been handed down in Iksan (previously called “Iri”), Iri Nongak belongs to Honam Udo Nongak (Farmers’ Performance of the Eastern Jeolla-do). Nongak (farmers’ performance) has developed briskly in Saesil Village in Iksan. The village brought people who learned farmers’ music from experts in nearby areas like Gimje and Jeongeup and who trained a high-quality farmers’ music troupe as we see today. An Iri nongak troupe is composed of yonggi (dragon flag), nonggi (farmers’ flag), swaenap (conical wooden oboe), trumpet, samul [four percussion instruments, i.e., two kkwaenggwari (small gongs), two jing (large gongs), two buk (drums), and four janggo (hourglass-shaped drums)], beopgo (Buddhist drum), and japsaek [referring to a group composed of yangban (nobleman), daeposu (drummer), jorijung (masked clown), changbu (male clown), gaksi (young girl), and mudong (dancing boys)]. Troupe members who are called chibae or gunchong wear black vest over white jacket, white trousers, and sangmo (hat with feathers or strings attached), with bands in three colors tied around the head. Kkwaenggwari (small gong)-based rhythms include those related to ilche, ichae, samchae, oemachijilgut, pungnyugut, ochaejilgut, jwajilgut, yangsando garak, hohogut, and obangjin garak. Pangut (entertainment-oriented performance) proceeds in the order of insagut, ochaejilgut, jwajilgut, pungnyugut, yangsando, ginmaedoji (joint performance of kkwaenggwari and janggo), sambangjingut, banguljingut, hohogut, dallachigi, short maedoji, jjakdeureum, ilgwang nori, gujeong nori (individual play), and gi sseulgi. There are diverse forms of bupo nori (hat dance) performed by sangsoe (leader of the farmers’ music troupe). Well-developed janggo rhythms and dances are mixed with the music. The performance also features sogochum (small drum dances) and jinpuri march. Many rhythms are relatively slow. The music makes colorful rhythms, each played to meticulously transformed tunes. Pungnyugut and deongdeokgungi-related rhythms showcase highly sophisticated techniques. Iri Nongak is a folk art performance that has been handed down along with the village history, playing an important role as an event that provides consolation in the hard life of farmers and helps villagers get along with each other well.
  • 1985.12.1
    designated date
    Gangneung Nongak is one of the most popular Yeongdong Nongak, which is handed down to the east of the Taebaek Mountains in Gangwon-do, and is also called Farming Pool Nongak because it has a farming pool that imitates and reproduces agricultural life. Although there are no exact records of its origin, it is presumed that it originated from the beginning of agricultural life.

    Gangneung Nongak is composed of Nonggi, Clenap (Lalari), Kkwaenggwari, Jing, drum, janggu, sogo, Beopgo (small drum used for Buddhist ceremonies), and Mudong (Sanaei). The performers wear white trousers and red, blue, and yellow tricolor bands, while the mudongs wear clothes mixed with various colors.

    Gangneung Nongak has three to four days of Nongak band walking from house to house around the fifteenth of lunar January, geollip nongak where Nongak and gosa are performed in order to collect joint funds from the village, gimaegi nongak, which is performed in the yard when gimmaegi is over, and jilmukgi when gimmaegi is over, and during the spring hwajeon nori.

    There are Dalmajigut (a wish for the moon), torchlight, and brass leg bapgi (a game in which young women pick one person to walk over their waist), and there are Gimmaegi nongak, Jilmukgi, and Gilnori nongak, which can be called Dure nongak.

    Gangneung Nongak plays an important role in promoting mutual harmony and village unity, forgetting the hardships of farming.
  • 1985.12.1
    designated date
    Goseong Nongyo has been handed down in Goseong, Gyeongsangnam-do. Goseong Nongyo is mainly composed of farming sounds that begin from the end of the summer and is also called 'Dungji', which is the Gyeongsang-do dialect of rice planting.

    Goseong Nongyo includes the sound of mochi, which is sung while steaming unknowns, the sound of planting rice seedlings, the sound of cutting barley, the sound of the boss singing when dried seaweed, and the sound of samsamgi sung by women, and the spinning wheel sung by spinning wheels.

    The lyrics of Goseong Nongyo are rich in the living emotions of farmers in this village, and it is full of local sentiment.

    Goseong Nongyo is a song of Gyeongsang-do, which has a rough and tough Gyeongsang-do style. However, due to its geographical influence, it has a musical structure based on the Gyemyunjo melody of Jeolla-do.
  • 1985.12.1
    designated date
    Nongyo is a song sung by farmers to forget their fatigue and improve their efficiency from hard and busy work, also known as wild songs or farming sounds.

    Yecheon Tongmyeong Nongyo is believed to have been started during the mid-Joseon Dynasty, as a farming song sung by farmers in Tongmyeong-ri, Yecheon-eup, Yecheon-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do to relieve their hardships caused by hard labor when planting rice every year.

    It consists of <Abu Reisuna나, which is sung during planting, <Sound of Help도, <Sound of Baby Maggie기, <Sound of Boss상, <Sound of Bangae Sori·, <Sound of Euyong Sori이용, and 부르는Bonghei이, which is sung on the way home from rice paddy. There are also "Samsamgi Song," "Bettle Song," and "Dohaetagi" sung by women.

    Yecheon Tongmyeong Nongyo is characterized by the fact that both the sound of rice planting and rice paddies are slow, long-pull notes are written, and that when the song is held and received, the end of the front sound and the front of the back sound partially overlap, creating a dual creative effect.

    Yecheon Tongmyeong Nongyo has a rural taste and simple taste, and the song and lyrics are local.
  • 1988.12.1
    designated date
    "Taepyeongmu" is a dance that expresses the peace of the country and the meaning of honoring the peaceful era. The origin is not clear, but it is known as one of the dances that Han Seong-jun, a dancer and master of the 1900s, reconstructed the Gyeonggi shamanic dance.

    Men and women dress up as kings and queens to show the grandeur and splendor of the royal court style, while dance troupes are more complex and demanding than other dance troupes, such as Jinso, Nakgoong, Turbulim, and Chullpuri. Along with the change of rhythm, the techniques of treading, such as walking on the knees, walking on the knees, and bending the heels, show a flamboyant yet non-quick temperance.

    The movements are delicate and elegant, and each movement is theft. The dance of the mobile Anryu is a mixture of common simpleness and aristocratic sentiment, harmonizing excitement, style, and solemnity, and the dance of the Gangseonyeongryu is solemn and solemn, and the dance of the Gangsunyeongryu is graceful and splendid, giving you a sense of elegance and splendor in the dance.

    Taepyeongmu is the most artful footwork dance in Korea. It expresses the characteristics of folk dance well and is highly artistic compared to the world.
  • 1989.12.1
    designated date
    Jeju Island is also known as Samdado Island because it has a lot of wind, stones, and women. It is widely known as a treasure trove of folk songs, as many folk songs are also handed down depending on the type of occupation.

    Folk folk songs and popular folk songs sung in Jeju Island are divided into various types of occupations of people singing folk songs, such as farming, fishing, work singing, ritual singing, women's songs and children's songs, and popular miscellaneous songs.

    The sounds of farming include "Sadae Sori" and "Stamping Sori," while the sounds of fishing include "Sound of rowing" and "Sound of Anchovy Frying." Some of the sounds you sing while you work include Whale Sound, Phlegm, and Bangat-Rolling Sound, while others include Haengsang-Sori, DalguSori, and Flower Flame. Women's songs and children's songs include "Song of Living in the House," "Baby Funny," and "Song of the Mother." Some of the miscellaneous items are Odolttogi, Yi Hongtaryeong, and Seowo Jetsori.

    Jeju folk songs are noteworthy in that there are many labor songs sung while working, and folk songs sung by women and women are common. Songs also use a lot of unusual Jeju dialect, and are more sad than folk songs in Gyeonggi Province. Jeju folk songs express a feeling of regret, creating a different atmosphere.

    ※ Recognized as a holding organization without holders: 2017.4.3(National Intangible Cultural Property Jeju Folk Song Preservation Association)
  • 1964.12.7
    designated date
    Jongmyo Jeryeak refers to music played using dance, songs, and musical instruments when performing ancestral rites (Jongmyo Jerye) at a shrine (Jongmyo) that honors kings and queens of the Joseon Dynasty.

    In each procedure of the Jongmyo rite, a song called Jongmyo movement is sung to praise the virtues of ancestors, focusing on the music of Bo Tae-pyeong and Jeong Dae-up. While the Jongmyo Jeryeak is played, it is accompanied by a literary figure, Bo Taepyeongjimu (honor of the kings' virtues) and a martial artist, Jeong Dae-upjimu (praise of the kings' exploits).

    Jongmyo Jeryeak was originally created for use in the royal banquet in 1447 (the 29th year of King Sejong's reign), and has been handed down to this day after being repaired in accordance with the 10th year of King Sejong's reign (1464). Eleven songs by Bo Tae-pyeong and 11 by Jung Dae-up are played at the Jongmyo Daeje, which is held on the first Sunday of May every year.

    Jongmyo Jeryeak is the essence of court music, which combines instrumental performances, songs and dances of the Joseon Dynasty, and has a unique style and beauty that can not be seen in other countries while well showing our cultural traditions and characteristics.

    The National Intangible Cultural Property No. 1 Jongmyo Jeryeak is currently listed as a representative UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
  • 1964.12.7
    designated date
    Yangju Byeolsandae Nori is one of the Sandae Dogam performed by itinerary troupes based in Seoul and the capital region. Consisting of dance, pantomime, well-wishing remarks, and acrobatics, it originated about 200 years ago and came to be performed during holidays and seasonal festivals such as the Buddha’s Birthday, Dano Festival, and Chuseok (Harvest Moon Festival on the 15th day of the eighth lunar month) and during ritual prayers for rainfall. Yangju Byeolsandae Nori is known to have originated from the mask dances performed by the Sajikgol Ttakttagipae group in Seoul. Each performance consists of eight episodes, which were often preceded by a parade in which performers wearing masks would dance around a town playing music, and hold a rite consisting of prayers for the safety of its residents. The main event was essentially a satire of Korean society with 32 characters representing different social groups and stereotypes, including depraved monks, impoverished aristocrats, shamans, buffoons, servants, and commoners.
  • 1964.12.7
    designated date
    Namsadang Nori was played by Namsadangpae, a wandering entertainer consisting of at least 40 men, including the puppet (head) from the late Joseon Dynasty to the 1920s, mainly for the working class.

    Namsadang Nori was a folk play that was born naturally in the common people's society, and it was not free to perform in the village due to being persecuted by aristocrats.

    Namsadangpae consists of a hwaju, who plans a performance at the peak of the puppet, a dungsoe, a playmaker, a rookie, an older monk, and a backman, but Namsadang Nori consists of pungmul, Verna, Salpan, Eoreum, Deobogi, and Dulmi.

    Pungmul is a kind of nongak nori, and it can be seen as a play to attract spectators by announcing the start of the performance.

    Verna, similar to Chinese dish spinning, is a feat of spinning a wheel or bowl to a stick or a pipe.

    Salpan is a land talent like today's tumbling, which means that if you do well, you'll die if you don't do well.

    Eoreum was used only in Namsadangpae because it was as difficult as walking on ice as walking cautiously, but more and more people began to use it.

    Seotboogi is a kind of mask play with a mask on. Dulmi, which extends to puppet shows, is called puppet play, Park Cheomji play, and Hongdongji play, depending on the important characters in the puppet show. In particular, puppet play has been handed down to this day, and it is of great historical significance that Namsadang play is the only traditional Korean puppet play.

    Namsadang Nori, which originated from the working class and was performed for the working class, was used to criticize and solve the immorality of the Korean and aristocratic communities that were treated poorly by the society at that time and to awaken public awareness.
  • 1996.12.10
    designated date
    Nubi is a method of sewing in order to put cotton, fur or mulberry paper between the outer fabric and the lining of cloth, or of broad stitching without putting anything between the outer fabric and lining to strengthen the cloth or to make it warmer. Nubijang refers to this skill or to an artisan with such a skill. The method became a common practice following the introduction of cotton growing. Some monks wore the same robe for tens of years, repairing it with this method. Nubi techniques developed to a point where even ordinary people came to adopt them.
    Among the things needed for the work of nubi are thread that matches as closely as possible that used on the clothes or bedding, needles, scissors, a heating iron, a push stick, a measuring stick, and a thimble. Regular straight lines are chiefly used for the nubi work on clothes or bedding, but a mixture of straight and curved lines are also used to make a pattern when working on wrapping cloth or pouches.
    The country’s traditional manual nubi sewing is said to be an artwork similar to embroidery, but it is gradually disappearing, as the work takes time and does not bring much economic benefit.
  • 1967.12.21
    designated date
    Yaryu is a custom of Ogwangdae (mask dance drama) that was first performed in the inland areas of Gyeongsangnam-do but spread to Suyeong, Dongnae, and Busanjin. Yaryu literally means playing in an open field. This mask play was performed by non-professionals like villagers. Dongnae Yaryu was performed on the evening of the full moon of January 15 on the lunar calendar, supposedly to pray for a good year for crops. Dongnae Yaryu was said to have been started about 100 years ago after its cousin performed in nearby Suyeong. Now performed as an entertainment, it is composed of four acts: leper dance, gag exchanged between a yangban (nobleman) and Malttugi (servant), Yeongno (therianthropic character)’s dance, and old couple’s dance. Members of the troupe march to the site of performance while playing music. The main subject of the performance is a satire about nobles. The masks are made of gourds. The chin part of the masks is made movable, moving upward and downward while its wearer delivers a gag. The play is performed to the accompaniment of percussion instruments, which play exorcist music. Malttugi’s dance and nobleman’s dance are the leading performances. Obangsin (Deities of the Five Directions)’s dance, satire about deprave monks, and lion dance -- which are usually included in Ogwangdae mask dance drama -- are not performed in Dongnae Yaryu.
  • 1968.12.21
    designated date
    Jeongak (literally “elegant orthodox music”) refers to music played at the Royal Palace, government offices, and local places where people of refined tastes gathered together. As one of the three bamboo instruments developed during the Silla Period (57 BC - 935 AD), i.e., daegeum (large-sized bamboo flute), junggeum (medium-sized bamboo flute), and sogeum (small-sized bamboo flute), Daegeum is the longest among the traditional transverse flutes of the country. It has the emboucher hole at the right end, a buzzing membrane made of inner skin of reed that gives it a special timber, and six holes. Since it makes a wider range of sound than other instruments, it is used as a leading solo instrument. Daegeum-played jeongak covers all kinds of formal ceremonial music, which are all ensembles. It is not known when they started to be played solo. The titles of the pieces of music played by daegeum include Cheongseong Jajinhanip, Pyeongjo Hoesang, and Jajinhanip. Melodies made by Daegeum Jeongak sound delicate but not light, soft but not feeble, and fragile but not shallow.
  • 1968.12.21
    designated date
    As a drum dance handed down in Tongyeong (Chungmu), Gyeongsangnam-do, it was performed by barmaids and boys. During the Japanese Invasion of Korea (1592-1598), Admiral Yi Sun-sin had this dance played to boost the morale of his troops or celebrate the victory of battles. Many dances performed in Tongyeong, a naval town, were called Seungjeonmu (Victory Dance). Only the Mugo (Drum Dance) was designated as important intangible cultural heritage under the name Seungjeonmu in 1968. Nine years later, Geommu (Sword Dance) was included in said designation. Looking at how a victory dance is performed, four dancing women in ceremonial dress with long white cuffs make movements, gathering in the direction of the drum placed at the center and then scattering in four directions with soft steps after beating the drum; thus creating a grand, joyous atmosphere. Samhyeon dodeuri (dodeuri rhythm music by three strings) and taryeong (Korean folk song) were used as accompaniment in music. The overall dance movements are simple and antiquated, carrying unique local characteristics. Dancers performing a sword dance wear white jacket, red skirt, black sleeveless coat, military official’s hat, red belt, and jacket with long, multicolor-striped undershirts while holding a sword in each hand. The tools used and dancers’ movements in Seungjeonmu are similar to the Mugo performed at the Royal Palace. The elegant dance movements, melodies of music, and overall exquisite arrangement make it a dance with high artistic and traditional value.
  • 1968.12.21
    designated date
    There are several types of strings used to make decorative knots. Circular strings used in accessories or pouches are called dongdahoe. Wide and flat strings used in waist belts are called gwangdahoe, whereas knots used in attire or ceremonial accessories are called gyeokdap or gyeolja. Knots date back to the primeval period, but the techniques for making knots or dyeing them as handed down in this country were introduced from China during the Three Kingdoms Period. During the Joseon Period, the government designated knot craftsmen. As for the materials used to make knots, there are threads made of silk, ramie, mulberry, hemp, and woolen yarn. Knot shapes vary depending on the color, thickness, and methods used for tying. The names used to call them differ from region to region. The names were based on household items, flowers, or insects, such as ginger piece, butterfly, dragonfly, chrysanthemum, etc. Tassels were attached to the lower end of the decorative knots used for musical instruments, vehicles, or Buddhist ceremonies. There were diverse types and levels of tassels depending on their use, i.e., whether they were for the Royal Palace or ordinary households.