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K-CULTURAL HERITAGE

Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 1966.6.29
    designated date
    Najeonjang, or mother-of-pearl inlaying, is a Korean Traditional method of decorating the surface of diverse household objects by lacquering and inlaying them with strips of mother-of-pearl. This Traditional handicraft is known to have originated from Tang China, but discoveries made at many archaeological sites related with ancient Korean kingdoms prove that Korea has a long tradition of the craft and that ancient Korean people exploited it profusely to produce all kinds of everyday household objects.

    To produce a lacquer work inlaid with a mother-of-pearl design, the artisan needs to make a “white frame” with wood first of all. He then lacquers its surface and decorates it by inlaying carefully prepared strips of mother-of-pearl, some of which are as thin as threads, on a prearranged pattern by using the techniques of kkeuneumjil and jureumjil. Each of the individual work processes is completed with a stage of grinding, lacquering, and polishing the surface.

    In the Goryeo and early Joseon Periods, the most favored designs included peony blossoms, chrysanthemums, and lotus flowers. Designs became more diverse during the mid-Joseon Period as artisans began to extend their interest to flowers with birds, white cranes, grapes, apricot flowers, and the Four Gracious Plants.

    The Traditional technique of inlaying mother-of-pearl is a time-consuming process that is currently preserved by, among others, two government-designated artisans, Song Bang-ung and Yi Hyeong-man.
  • 1995.6.30
    designated date
    There were three Jisos in Cheongsong that produced paper as a Traditional process: Jisori in Andeok-myeon, Misa-ri in Pacheon-myeon, and Jungpyeong-ri. Gamgok Village in Singi 2-ri, Pacheon-myeon, Cheongsong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do has long been known as a paper village because of its many oak trees and clear water.

    By the 1920s, more than 20 households in this village produced hanji, and residents who did not make a living also made it a side job. However, the supply of glass windows drastically reduced the demand for glassware, and modernized various rituals used mainly for hanji, resulting in a sharp drop in the consumption of hanji, which greatly reduced the Hanji battle.

    In such a difficult situation, Yi Sang-ryong, the holder of the Seondae function, moved to Songgang-ri to continue his family business, which began on the day of his transfer from the source of the Five Dynasties, and was designated as Gyeongsangbuk-do Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 23 Cheongsong Hanji.

    His eldest son, Lee Ja-seong, is currently serving as the owner of the Cheongsong Hanjijang function, taking over the family business. Samchejeong Pavilion, the ritual house of the Byeokjin Yi Clan in Gamgok Village, Shin Ki-ri, is the ritual house and pavilion of the three brothers, Lee Seok-il, Gamcheon Lee Jae-il and Seokcheon Lee Hyang-il, who started the family business.

    Recently, the demand for Traditional Korean paper has been increasing due to the use of hwaseon paper, possession, books, and wallpaper used by painters. Yi Ja-seong, the holder of the function of Cheongsong Hanjijang, Gyeongsangbuk-do Intangible Cultural Property No. 23, does not use imported mulberry trees, but collects and uses raw materials from the area of Cheongsong-gun, the birthplace of the mulberry tree, and Yecheon Yonggung.

    Lee Ja-seong not only built 6,000 square meters of mulberry field near the workshop, but also created Cheongsong Hanji Experience Center to spread Cheongsong Hanji
  • 1995.6.30
    designated date
    Sambae is also called Be, and in Chinese, it is also called Ma, Mapo, and Po. The cambes were found in the Gungsan Shell Mound in the Neolithic Age, indicating that they were used before the discovery.

    During the Goryeo Dynasty, Technology was developed and exported to China and was used with ramie as a means of cultural exchange. In the Joseon Dynasty, the production of sambae was slightly reduced as cotton production began.

    The production process is first cultivated and harvested by growing the cedar trees, then steamed the treetops that skimmed the leaves and dried in the sun.

    After splitting the three pieces of cloth, each string is extended and the length and width of the one piece of cloth determine how many rolls of thread will go in. Finally, after the process of feeding grass, we squeeze the fabric using a loom.

    Since it is a rare case in the country where a village is collectively inherited by a village, it is designated and protected as an intangible cultural asset.
  • 1996.7.1
    designated date
    Earthenware is divided into ceramics and porcelain, depending on how clay-made objects are baked. An object mixed with white clay and baked at a high temperature is called china or porcelain. Sagijang refers to this skill or to an officially recognized artisan with such a skill.

    Ceramics and porcelain, particularly blue porcelain made during the Goryeo Period (877 – 1394) and thereafter are recognized as the best in the world. During the Joseon Period (1392 – 1910), Saongwon (Palace Kitchen Management) was in charge of porcelain production. Its branch in Gyeonggi-do made special objects to be used by the royal family.

    The government-run porcelain kilns were closed toward the late Joseon Period, following which porcelain artisans started private businesses in Mungyeong, Goisan, and Danyang.

    As for the process of china production, first of all, sandy soil is put into water to remove foreign materials. A desired form of is made with the soil, using a foot-operated spinning wheel. The object is then put into a kiln for pre-firing. Glaze is applied to the pre-fired object, and it is again put into a kiln for second firing.

    Experts say that grayish-blue-powdered celadon of Joseon evokes a folksy and lively feeling, while white porcelain evokes the character of a gracious scholar.
  • 2005.7.1
    designated date
    Saengchiljang is a craftsman who paints woodware with raw lacquer. Painting wood with high quality raw paint makes it black at first, but as time goes by, the original pattern slowly appears, and not only does the gloss come alive but also changes beautifully as time goes by, so raw lacquer has long been widely used. However, as the lacquer industry has declined in recent years, the number of lacquer techniques has decreased significantly.

    Lee Don-ho, the holder of the painting, is a craftsman who has been painting raw lacquer since 1977, and has been taught Traditional techniques and functions by Korean lacquer masters such as Shin Jung-hyun (Seoul Intangible Cultural Property No. 1 raw lacquer paste) and Lee Seong-gu.
  • 2009.7.1
    Specified date
    A blacksmith's shop is a place where various tools, such as Traditional farming tools, are manufactured by means of metal (iron), and a blacksmith refers to a person who has the Technology or Technology to make Traditional farming tools, etc.

    Currently, the blacksmith's facilities include bellows, anvil, chisels, and maes, and the blacksmith produces various tools through molding iron, perforation, and heat treatment.

    Many blacksmiths, which existed until the 1960s, are now facing difficulties in Traditional crafting techniques and transmission of blacksmiths due to industrialization, and have continued into the family business following Traditional blacksmithing functions.

    In particular, it has not only Traditional functions in plastic surgery, perforation, and heat treatment Technology, but also has Traditional blacksmithing functions such as excellent Traditional and easy production functions.
  • 1969.7.4
    designated date
    Naju Saetgollai refers to the work of cotton weaving or women cotton weavers in Saetgol, Naju, Jeollanam-do.

    Cotton was first introduced to the country by Mun Ik-jeom toward the end of the Goryeo Period (877-1394) from the Yuan Dynasty, China. Spreading throughout the country, cotton, together with rice, came to be used as a means of exchange from the early Joseon Period (1392-1910). The Japanese imported cotton from Korea.

    Cotton is produced through the following process: ginning, flattening cotton, spinning, deciding the density of warp threads, starching, and weaving. Cotton is harvested mid-August, with the first harvested batch usually the best in terms of quality.

    Cotton cloth produced in Gaeseong and Jinju used to be regarded as the best in the country; now, however, that produced in Naju has replaced it as the best one in the country.
  • 1993.7.6
    designated date
    Daegeumjang means a person or a person who has the Technology to make daegeum, one of the three gems (Daegeum, Junggeum, and Salt). Daegeum is a bamboo wind instrument called 'jeo' or 'jeotdae'.

    The materials used to make daegeum are Hwangjuk or <span class='xml2' onmouseover='up2 (3402)'onmouseout='dn2()'dn2()>쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍쌍>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 재료 재료. If you look at the production process, first remove the oil by baking the yellow or double-bone porridge on fire, and then straighten the bent part and dry it for about two months. Pour salt water into the bamboo and let it pass for about 24 hours, then remove the salt water and dry it for 10 days. In order to prevent cracks in bamboo that has gone through this process, 10 fishing lines are tied to each joint. In the holes, Chuigu and <span class='xml2' onmouseover='up2(5415)'Onmouseout='dn2()'dn2()'span class='span class='onmouseover=' (5156) The zigong controls the pitch with the fingers, and the Chilsungong plays a role of finely adjusting the whole note.
  • 2015.7.8
    designated date
    Seonjajang is the skill of making a Traditional fan and a master artisan who holds such skill.

    In general, Korean fans are divided into two styles: Danseon, i.e. fans with a large, rounded shape, and Jeopseon, or folding fans. Hapjukseon, a type of folding fan exhibiting a high degree of refinement and sophistication, has been one of Korea’s most representative craft products — along with other craft wares made with mother-of-pearl, metal, lacquer and jade — ever since the Goryeo Dynasty.

    Hapjukseon were made mainly by artisans at the Seonjacheong, the government office responsible for making fans (located in Jeonju, where the Jeolla Provincial Office was situated during the Joseon Dynasty), and were used for diplomatic purposes and foreign trade.

    Meanwhile, hapjuk were made of double slips of bamboo originating from Damyang in Jeollanam-do Province, the main production site of bamboo in Korea.
  • 2010.7.9
    designated date
    Wood carving is a piece that expresses the texture and texture of wood based on wood. It is estimated that the beautiful and sound texture of paulownia, pines, fir trees, ginkgo trees, zelkova trees, and painting trees were used as materials, and the origin of this sculpture was that Buddhist statues related to Buddhist rituals such as temple architecture and Buddhist statues began to be produced during the Three Kingdoms Period.

    Since entering Buddhist sculpture in 1975, Ha Myung-seok, who holds the function of Traditional Buddhist sculpture after receiving a five-year history of Buddhist monk Cheongwon, the current Gyeongsangbuk-do cultural heritage expert, acquired the qualification for cultural heritage repair in 1989 and has also been engaged in cultural property repair work such as repairing the wooden coffin statue of Bodhisattva in Beopjusa Temple.

    Each temple receives orders from each temple every year to produce woodblocks and woodwork paintings, and continues to carry on its functions. In 1989, it obtained the qualification as a cultural heritage repair technician and engaged in the repair of cultural assets (wood carving) and contributed to the preservation of cultural assets.
  • 2006.7.10
    Specified date
    Sagijang (Ceramic Making) refers to a person who has the skill of making a bowl of clay, feldspar, silice and white clay from raw materials and baking it at a high temperature of more than 1300°C.

    Among them, buncheong ware is made of clay and is made of white clay powder or inlaid design, and white porcelain is made of pure white clay and baked with transparent glaze on top of it.

    The family of Yi Hak-cheon, designated as a functional holder, has been in the vanguard of Traditional pottery for seven generations. He was also recognized as a master potter in 2002.

    The works of Cheonghwa White Porcelain, Buncheongsagi, Cosmetics White Porcelain Temple, and Ungcheon Sabal are mainly produced using Traditional techniques such as balmulae and jangjaema.
  • 2009.7.10
    Specified date
    Heo Chang-gu, who has been designated as a blacksmith, has been learning to temper from Lee Man-bok (death) at the Umacha factory after graduating from Kookmin School (currently elementary school), and has been learning blacksmithing from Shin Gil-deuk to run a blacksmith shop for nearly 50 years to produce Traditional Korean metals.
  • 2016.7.11
    designated date
    Dangjin Blacksmith has inherited the tradition of field Technology as a family business for more than 100 years for the fourth generation.

    Dangjin has long been a unique Naepo culture area that combines marine and land cultures around Asan Bay, and has also produced other farming and fishing tools in the field of the field. Specifically, it highlights the application of iron-strengthening techniques and Traditional techniques to fishing tools, such as eel fishing windows, fish fishing windows, water-removing sickles, scratches, anchors, oyster shells, mudflats, hoe, mudflats, and other fishing tools and fishing tools such as fishing tools, porcelain, sputum, and ploughing tools.

    Chungcheongnam-do was designated as Chungcheongnam-do Intangible Cultural Property No. 41-3 in 2016 in recognition of the Traditional manufacturing technique for the field of Dangjin blacksmith and the cultural heritage value of grafting Technology combined with agriculture and fisheries.
  • 2007.7.20
    designated date
    Dancheong refers to the use of five colors, blue, red, yellow, white, and black, to paint beautifully by drawing patterns and paintings on buildings or artifacts. A person with this technique of dancheong and its skill is called dancheongjang, and if a person engaged in dancheong is a monk, he or she was called Geumi or Hwaseung.

    Dancheong in Korea can be found through various ancient tomb murals dating back to the Three Kingdoms Period. Especially, the murals of Goguryeo tombs show the architectural style of the time and the appearance of dancheong, indicating the origin of dancheong. Dancheong was also found in vessels such as chaehwa and lacquer excavated from ancient tombs, but it was mainly used for wooden buildings. Dancheong also includes painting and painting of Buddha statues on the walls of buildings.

    If you look at the course of Dancheongjang's class, you will first practice drawing from Xiwangcho to Cheonwangcho in armor. If you are good at it, you will become a dancheong master by painting the upper tangerines that draw fire and bodhisattva. There are many types of dancheong, such as dancheong, which is simply drawn with black and white lines, morodancheong, which draws a draft of hair, and gilt dancheong, which is painted in five colors.

    Dancheong preserves wooden structures for a long period of time and paints a temple with natural dark vegetables made of mineral materials, such as sand class='xml2' onmouseover='up2(2800)'dmouseout='dn2()'dn2(()(석>>>>>>>>>>, which are collected from sand or soil for harmony. Dancheong in Korea has been developed into a beautiful beauty of Korean architecture as it is found in ancient tombs of Goguryeo and has continued its tradition throughout the Three Kingdoms Period to the Goryeo and Joseon Periods.

    Shin Woo-soon was born in 1951, and was taught Korean Buddhist paintings that led to Kim Il-seop – uncle Shin Eon-su. He participated in major temples across the country including Nahanjeon Hall of Baekyangsa Temple, Daeseongjeon Hall of Gwangjuhyanggyo Local Confucian School, Seonwon Temple of Bulguksa Temple in Gyeongju, Daewonsa Temple in Uijeongbu, Cheonwangmun Gate of Buan Naesosa Temple, and Yosachae of Sudoksa Temple, Mireukjeon Hall of Geumsan Temple and Daeungbojeon Temple of Gongjumi Magoksa Temple.

    Shin Woo-sun has a good sense of form and proportion, and harmony of colors, as she accurately uses the patterns of dancheong and properly draws them.
  • 1970.7.22
    designated date
    Jogakjang refers to the skill of metal engraving or to the artisan who does it.

    Unearthed artifacts lead us to guess that metal engraving was first attempted during the Bronze Age. Diverse engraving techniques were used during the Three Kingdoms Period (57 BC – 668 AD), and they made noticeable developments during the Goryeo Period (877 – 1394).

    During the Joseon Period (1392 – 1910), metal handicrafts started to develop as an independent sector. Techniques used in metal engraving include depressed engraving, bratticing, relief engraving, 3D engraving, and inlaying.

    Materials used are gold, silver, iron, lead, zinc, and tin. Silver is the most commonly used. Favorite designs used are scenery, flowers, birds, clouds, dragons and vines.

    Esthetic quality or propitiousness became the criteria for selection of the patterns of metal engraving in the later Joseon Period and thereafter.