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Everlasting Legacies of Korea

  • 1985.12.1
    designated date
    Referring to farmers’ music that has been handed down in Iksan (previously called “Iri”), Iri Nongak belongs to Honam Udo Nongak (Farmers’ Performance of the Eastern Jeolla-do). Nongak (farmers’ performance) has developed briskly in Saesil Village in Iksan. The village brought people who learned farmers’ music from experts in nearby areas like Gimje and Jeongeup and who trained a high-quality farmers’ music troupe as we see today. An Iri Nongak troupe is composed of yonggi (dragon flag), nonggi (farmers’ flag), swaenap (conical wooden oboe), trumpet, samul [four percussion instruments, i.e., two kkwaenggwari (small gongs), two jing (large gongs), two buk (drums), and four janggo (hourglass-shaped drums)], beopgo (Buddhist drum), and japsaek [referring to a group composed of yangban (nobleman), daeposu (drummer), jorijung (masked clown), changbu (male clown), gaksi (young girl), and mudong (dancing boys)]. Troupe members who are called chibae or gunchong wear black vest over white jacket, white trousers, and sangmo (hat with feathers or strings attached), with bands in three colors tied around the head. Kkwaenggwari (small gong)-based rhythms include those related to ilche, ichae, samchae, oemachijilgut, pungnyugut, ochaejilgut, jwajilgut, yangsando garak, hohogut, and obangjin garak. Pangut (entertainment-oriented performance) proceeds in the order of insagut, ochaejilgut, jwajilgut, pungnyugut, yangsando, ginmaedoji (joint performance of kkwaenggwari and janggo), sambangjingut, banguljingut, hohogut, dallachigi, short maedoji, jjakdeureum, ilgwang nori, gujeong nori (individual play), and gi sseulgi. There are diverse forms of bupo nori (hat dance) performed by sangsoe (leader of the farmers’ music troupe). Well-developed janggo rhythms and dances are mixed with the music. The performance also features sogochum (small drum dances) and jinpuri march. Many rhythms are relatively slow. The music makes colorful rhythms, each played to meticulously transformed tunes. Pungnyugut and deongdeokgungi-related rhythms showcase highly sophisticated techniques. Iri Nongak is a folk art performance that has been handed down along with the village history, playing an important role as an event that provides consolation in the hard life of farmers and helps villagers get along with each other well.
  • 1996.3.29
    designated date
    Nongak is the music played by farmers when they work with Du-re (an organization for community work) and refers to the music played by percussion instruments such as kkwa-ri, Jing-gu, Janggu, and drum.

    Jeongeup Nongak is a Nongak that has been handed down from village to village and has improved its artistic level as it is combined with the outstanding entertainment of the hereditary dance group. In addition, in the 1920s, the local folk religion, Bocheongyo, adopted Nongak as religious music, bringing together and integrating outstanding Nongak performers, once again improving its artistic level. Since then, Jeongeup Nongak has had a great influence on Nongak not only in North Jeolla Province but also throughout the country.

    Currently, Jeongeup Nongak is recognized as a holder of entertainment by Yoo Ji-hwa and Kim Jong-soo.