K-HISTORY 1 Page > Little Korea

K-HISTORY

Meaningful Days of Korean History

  • 1991.10.25
    a date designated as a historical site
    It is a historic park located in Jongno, Seoul. It was renamed Tapgol Park from Pagoda Park in 1991 and is designated as Historic Site No. 354.

    The reason Tapgol Park is important in Korea's modern and contemporary history is because it is the birthplace of the March 1 Independence Movement, which first read the Declaration of Independence during the March 1 Independence Movement in 1919.

    On March 1, 1919, people gathered here to listen to the Declaration of Independence and started the March 1 Independence Movement. Therefore, Japanese colonial era Pagoda Park was also a popular place for people to soothe their country's lost sorrow.

    Currently, there are cultural assets such as the 10-story stone pagoda of Wongaksa Temple Site, the second National treasure, and the third treasure, Wongaksa Monument, the March 1 Independence Movement Memorial Tower, the March 1 Movement Wall Painting, the statue of Uiam Son Byung-hee, and the monument of Han Yong-un.
  • 1962.12.20
    designated date of national treasure
    The Tripitaka Koreana Tripitaka Correana, or the Tripitaka Koreana in Hapcheon, South Gyeongsang Province, began its first edition in 1236 (the 23rd year of King Gojong's reign) in Ganghwa County, Korea, in order to prevent the invasion of Mongolia by force in Haeinsa Temple, Hapcheon County, South Gyeongsang Province.

    On December 20, 1962, it was designated as the 32nd National treasure of the Republic of Korea, and changed to the current name on August 25, 2010.

    The Tripitaka Koreana, which is considered to be the oldest of the existing world's great wonders and the most complete of its stay and contents, was designated as a World Heritage Site in 2007.
  • 1965.12.20
    designated date of national treasure
    Goryeo porcelain was a pottery made during the Goryeo Dynasty, which refers to celadon made during the Goryeo Dynasty, such as celadon, white porcelain, black yuja, and iron yuja, but has generally been recognized as a reference to Goryeo celadon.

    Goryeo celadon was developed under the influence of pottery from the Song Dynasty and its techniques were much better than those of the Song Dynasty, so the Song Dynasty people praised it as the best in the world.

    The excellence of Goryeo celadon can be attributed to its beautiful color. Some are yellowish or yellowish brown, but others are especially beautiful.

    There is National treasure No. 115 of the celadon Sanggamdang First Gate Wan, which represents the period.
  • 1962.12.20
    designated date of national treasure
    The tombstone of King Taejong Muyeol in Gyeongju is the tombstone of King Taejong Muyeol, the 29th king of Silla, which was built in the mid 7th century in Seorak-dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-do. It is also abbreviated as the Royal Tomb of King Muyeol.

    The stele, which was erected during the Unified Silla Period, was shaped like a turtle, and the headstone on the stele was carved with a dragon. The tombstone of King Taejong Muyeol was the first example of this style.

    On December 20, 1962, it was designated as National treasure No. 25 of the Republic of Korea.
  • 1962.12.20
    designated date of national treasure
    The construction of Seokguram Grotto was begun in 751 under the leadership of Prime Minister Kim Dae-seong during the reign of King Gyeongdeok of the Silla Dynasty, and was completed in 774 (the 10th year of King Hyegong’s reign), whereupon it was given its original name of Seokbulsa Temple.
    Buddhist art reached its peak during King Gyeongdeok’s reign, which spanned the middle period of the Silla Period, Besides Seokguram Grotto, many other cultural treasures were built during this period, including Bulguksa Temple, Dabotap Pagoda, the Three-story Stone Pagoda of Bulguksa Temple, and the Bell of Hwangnyongsa Temple.
    The artificial stone grotto was built halfway down Tohamsan Mountain with pieces of white granite. The principal statue of Sakyamuni Buddha was placed at the center of the grotto, and forty statues of various bodhisattvas, Buddha’s disciples, and guardian kings were carved on the surrounding walls, though only thirty-eight of them remain. The rectangular front chamber of the grotto is connected to the round main chamber by a corridor. The exquisite ceiling of the main chamber was made with more than 360 flat stones. The architectural technique used to build this grotto is unprecedented in its excellence. There are statues of four guardian deities on both the left and right sides of the front chamber, which functions as the entrance to the main chamber. Carved on both sides of the entrance to the corridor is a statue of the Vajra Guardians, while the narrow corridor is decorated with the Four Guardian Kings carved in pairs. There is an octagonal stone column on both sides of the entrance to the round main chamber. The Principal Buddha is placed slightly off center toward the back of the main chamber. From the entrance, the walls of the chamber are filled with the images of two devas, two bodhisattvas, and ten arhats. Standing behind the Principal Buddha is a statue of the Eleven-faced Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva, perhaps the most exquisitely carved statue found inside this grotto.
    Every single sculpture contained in the grotto may be considered a masterpiece of East Asian Buddhist art. The list of masterpieces includes the principal image of Buddha, which was created with mature carving skills; the Eleven-faced Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva with its magnificently carved face and body; statues of valiant warriors and the majestic Four Guardian Kings; and the supple graceful statues of various bodhisattvas and arhats, each of which displays a distinctive individuality. In particular, the serene appearance of the Principal Buddha enshrined in the main chamber deepens the mystical atmosphere. The extremely natural appearance of the Principal Buddha seems to present to all living people the ideal model of a man harboring a profound and sublime mind deep within him and easily pass to them his everlasting mercy. Seokguram Grotto is a masterpiece of the golden age of Buddhist art in Silla. What makes it stand out all the more is its perfect combination of architecture, mathematics, geometry, religion, and art. Seokguram Grotto has long been preserved as National treasure No. 24, and was jointly registered as a UNESCO World Heritage in December 1995 along with Bulguksa Temple.
  • 1962.12.20
    designated date of national treasure
    It was also called Namdaemun because it was located in the south of the main gate of Hanyangdoseong during the Joseon Dynasty. It was built in 1396 (the 7th year of King Taejo's reign) and was the oldest wooden building in Seoul.

    The building was rebuilt in 1448 (the 30th year of King Sejong's reign), and it was discovered that there was a big construction in the 10th year of King Seongjong's reign (1479) during the dismantling and repair of the building between 1961 and 1963.

    Later, on February 10, 2008, the fire at Sungnyemun destroyed the roof of the second floor of the pavilion and partially destroyed the roof of the first floor. After five years and two months of restoration work, it was completed on May 4, 2013 and opened to the public.

    This gate is a two-story building with a two-story square measuring 5 bays in front space and 2 bays in side space, with a rainbow-shaped gate in the middle of the stone pillars. The roof has a trapezoidal shape when viewed from the front, which is called the Woojingak roof. The multi-layered structure, which is decorated on the upper part of the pillars to support the eaves of the roof, is not only on top of the pillars but also between the pillars, and the composition is not too severe and is well-organized, showing the characteristics of the early Joseon Dynasty.

    It is said that Yangnyeongdaegun wrote the Hyeonpan, which reads "Sungnyemun," in the book "Jibong Yuseol." It is the oldest wooden structure in Seoul that shows the exact date of construction.

    ᄋ Sungnyemun's fire-fighting fire(2008.2.10)

    - The 2008 Sungnyemun arson attack was a case in which the Sungnyemun building was burnt down from February 10 to February 11, 2008. The fire broke out around 8:40 p.m. on February 10, 2008, and the second floor of Sungnyemun collapsed around 0:40 a.m. on February 11, 2008, followed by a fire on the first floor, damaging buildings except stone pillars at 1:55 a.m., five hours after the fire.
  • 1962.12.20
    designated date of national treasure
    Dabotap Pagoda and Seokgatap Pagoda (the Three-story Stone Pagoda of Bulguksa Temple, National treasure No. 21) are the two most renowned pagodas in Korea. They are similar in height (10.29m and 10.75m), and stand facing each other, Dabotap Pagoda in the east, Seokgatap Pagoda in the west, between Daeungjeon Hall and Jahamun Gate of Bulguksa Temple . Dabotap is a unique type of pagoda, while Seokgatap Pagoda (also known as “Sakyamuni Buddha Pagoda”) is representative of the more general type of stone pagoda. The two pagodas were built at the same site to reflect the content of the Saddharmapundarika Sutra (The Lotus Sutra), in which the Dabo Buddha (“Buddha of the past”) stands beside Sakyamuni (“Buddha of the present”) to prove that his Buddhist sermon is right. Bulguksa Temple was founded by Kim Dae-seong’s offer in 751 (the 10th year of the reign of King Gyeongdeok of Silla).
    Samguk yusa (Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms) states that Kim Dae-seong built Seokguram Grotto for his parents in his former life, and Bulguksa Temple for his present parents. However, the temple was not completed at the time of his death, so it was finished afterwards by the kingdom, and in the end, the temple was run not for the private individual Kim Dae-seong but for the benefit of the kingdom as a whole.
    Bulguksa Temple can be said to be the realization of the Buddhist paradise in which Buddhist monks of past, present, and future live together. It clearly reveals aspects of the spiritual world of the people of Silla. While it is perfectly clear that Seokgatap Pagoda is a three-story pagoda standing on a two-story platform, it is difficult to count the number of stories of Dabotap Pagoda. In fact, even experts have diverging opinions, with some saying it is has four stories and others that it has only three. However, the uniqueness of Dabotap Pagoda can be seen in the structure of each part. Stone staircases are attached to each side of the cross-shaped platform, with an octagonal pagoda body surrounded by square railings placed upon it. It is presumed that the pagoda was built in 751 during the construction of Bulguksa Temple.
    This work is a masterpiece that beautifully expresses the complicated structure of wooden construction without any distraction by the use of through novel ideas. The work exhibits the artistic sensibility of Unified Silla through its well-organized structure consisting of squares, octagons, and circles, and in its length, width and thickness, which are standardized in every part. During the Japanese Colonial Period, the Japanese dismantled and repaired the pagoda around 1925, but they left behind no records of this work. In the process, Artifact, reliquaries, and other artifacts that must have been placed inside the pagoda all disappeared. In addition, of the four lions originally placed on the stone staircases of the pagoda, the Japanese took away three, all of which must have been in good condition. Though there have been continuous efforts to retrieve these precious cultural heritages, no trace has been found of them as yet.
  • 1962.12.20
    designated date of national treasure
    The Ten-story Stone Pagoda of Wongaksa Temple Site in Seoul is a Joseon-era stone pagoda located in Tapgol Park, Jongno-gu, Seoul, and is the second National treasure of Korea.

    The stone pagoda was built in 1467 (the 13th year of King Sejo's reign) and consists of a three-story stylobate and a 10-story pagoda, embossed with figures and flower designs.

    The top third floor was corroded by the long-standing collapse of the bird droppings.

    It was restored to its original state in 1947. In 2000, the surface was seriously damaged and glass-protected.
  • 1962.12.20
    designated date of national treasure
    Purebi of Silla Jinheungwang in Bukhansan Mountain in Seoul was erected after King Jinheung of Silla visited the newly targeted border area.

    Although it was located at Bukhansan Mountain Bibong, it was moved to Gyeongbokgung Palace for preservation, and has been housed by the National Museum of Korea since 1970.

    On December 20, 1962, it was designated as National treasure No. 3 of the Republic of Korea.
  • 1962.12.20
    designated date
    Cheomseongdae is a stone building of the mid-Silla period located in the northeastern part of Banwolseong Fortress in Gyeongju.

    The astronomical observatory of the Silla Dynasty, which used to observe the movements of celestial bodies, is about nine meters high.

    It is known as the oldest observatory in the East, which was built during the reign of Queen Seondeok, and is a valuable cultural asset that shows the high level of science of the time.

    It was designated as National treasure No. 31 on December 20, 1962.
  • 1963.12.20
    designated date of national treasure
    The Five-story Stone Pagoda of Jeongnimsa Temple Site in Buyeo was a representative stone pagoda of the Baekje Period and is located in Dongnam-ri, Buyeo-eup, Buyeo-gun, Chungcheongnam-do.

    It is made of granite and is 8.33 meters high. Jeongnimsa Temple was an important temple in the middle of Sabi's downtown. It was designated as National treasure No. 9 on December 20, 1963.

    The stone pagoda of the Mireuksa Temple Site (National treasure No. 11) in Iksan is considered a valuable material in that it is a stone pagoda of the Baekje period, and it is regarded as the founder of the Korean stone pagoda.
  • 1962.12.20
    designated date
    The stone lantern in front of Muryangsujeon Hall in Buseoksa Temple in Yeongju is a stone lantern of Silla during the period of the two Koreas in front of Muryangsujeon Hall in Bukji-ri, Buseok-myeon, Yeongju-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do.

    It is designated as National treasure No. 17 of the Republic of Korea and is 2.97 meters tall. The octagonal shape is made of granite.

    It is the most beautiful stone lantern representing the Unified Silla Period, and its proportionate harmony is beautiful, colorful, and elegant.

    In particular, the elaboration of the bodhisattva carved on the four sides of Hwasa Stone further highlights this stone lantern.
  • 1962.12.20
    designated date
    Hunminjeongeum is a commentary written in Chinese characters and published in 1446 by a group of renowned Jiphyeonjeon (Academy of Scholarly Worthies) scholars according to a royal edict issued by King Sejong (r. 1418-1450). The commentary has the same title as the original, Hunminjeongeum, given to the newly invented Korean writing system but different names, including The Explanatory Edition of the Correct Sounds for the Instruction of the People (Hunminjeongeum Haeryebon) and The Original Edition of the Correct Sounds for the Instruction of the People (Hunminjeongeum Wonbon). It is a single-volume xylographic book consisting of 33 chapters. In the book, the chapters are grouped into 3 parts wherein the first part contains the main text of Hunminjeongeum in 4 chapters printed on 7 pages, each containing 7 lines of text with 11 characters per line; the second part contains a commentary in 26 chapters on 51 pages, each containing 8 lines of text with 13 characters per line. The third part contains a 3-chapter introduction of the writing system written by Jeong In-ji (1396-1478) and which ends with a date, suggesting that the Korean writing system was promulgated in 1446. According to The Veritable Records of King Sejong (Sejong Sillok), the Korean alphabet called Hunminjeongeum was invented in 1443 by King Sejong himself and proclaimed in 1446. The commentary and Jeong In-ji’s introduction as contained in this book provide information on the scholar-statesman’s active participation in the creation of the alphabet and the basic principles used for it.
  • 1962.12.20
    designated date
    The Three-story Stone Pagoda of Bulguksa Temple in Gyeongju is a three-story stone pagoda of Silla during the period of the Northern and Southern States, located in Bulguksa Temple in Gyeongju.

    The original name was Seokga Yeorae Sangjuseol Pagoda, which is commonly called Seokga Pagoda for short for short.

    The pagoda is also called "Muyeong Pagoda (a tower without shadow), which is a sad legend about Asadal, a stoneworker of Baekje who built the pagoda, who had to throw herself into the pond without meeting her husband.

    Standing side by side with the Dabotap in front of Daeungjeon Hall of Bulguksa Temple, it is designated as National treasure No. 21 of the Republic of Korea.
  • 1962.12.20
    designated date of national treasure
    The gilt-bronze Amitabha Buddha statue of Bulguksa Temple in Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang Province, is a gilt-bronze Amitabha Buddha statue of Silla during the period of the two Koreas.

    On December 20, 1962, it was designated as the 27th National treasure of Korea, Geumdong Amitabha Buddha, and changed its name to the current one on June 28, 2010.