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K-Cultural Heritage (6)

  • 1991.12.23
    designated date
    Pogurakmu is one of the dances and songs performed in the royal court, representing the game of throwing a ball into a hole. According to "The History of Goryeo" and "The Treasures of Evil," Pogurakmu originated from China during the Goryeo Dynasty and was passed down to the early Joseon Dynasty. Jinju Pogurakmu originated from Jeong Hyeon-seok's Gyobang song (a song and dance performed to welcome wages on the road) during the reign of King Gojong (1863-1907).

    Pogurakmu wears a crown (a hat used for dancing and singing) on a mongduri (a dress worn by a giraffe or shaman). If you look at the sequence of proceedings, you will first place the port gate in the middle and divide it into two pieces. When you play music that marks the beginning, the bamboo ganza (a person holding a stick made of bamboo) goes further and stands on the left and right sides of the port gate, shouting slogans and backing down. Dance in various shapes according to different rhythms and throw the ball into the hole one by one. When the ball goes in, it receives a flower as a prize and sings the song, but if it doesn't go in, it is dipped in a brush with ink and stamped on the face. The last of the chants of the bamboozle is to leave with a dance.

    Jinju Pogurakmu is a Pogurakmu handed down from Jinju. The characteristic is that the flower crowns, mongduri and bamboo ganja in the royal port rock dance were removed, a song was added to the performance marking the beginning of the banquet, and a change in the method of reward and punishment was made. Jinju Pogurakmu was handed down as a unique play with folk elements along with various changes as Pogurakmu came down to the provinces, and Jeong Geum-soon, who lives in Jinju, continues to play.
  • 1996.2.1
    designated date
    Okjang refers to the skill of jade carving or an artisan with such a skill. Jade, set in gold and silver, was a favorite gemstone for Asians. Jade was used as an accessory symbolizing the five virtues, courage, benevolence, wisdom, rectitude and honesty. It was also used to make ceremonial utensils, hanging accessories indicating the wearer’s social status, okgyeong (jade chimes), medicinal materials, and medical tools.

    The use of jade as an important accessory for upper class people is testified to by the jade artifacts found at the sites dating from the Bronze Age, the curved jade, jade beads, and tubular jade unearthed from tombs of Three Kingdoms Period, and the jade waist belt of King Jinpyeong, which is said to be one of the top three Treasures of Silla. In Korea (up to the Joseon Period) and China, jade artifacts could be used only by members of the Royal Family and upper class people. It was difficult to acquire jade and the government limited the number of jade artisans.

    The work of jade processing, from quarrying to design, cutting, formation, detailed carving, and lustering requires careful handling and exquisite artistic skills. ☆
  • 2002.2.4
    designated date
    ☆ Nabi-chum(Butterfly dance) is a dance that symbolizes Buddha's law. The dance, also known as Haetalmu(a dance of nirvana), is a dance that has influenced folk dance in combination with Nanani dance in Incheon, and is further sublimated to its artistic value.

    It is a dance for the discovery of mercy, the discovery of true hearts, and the discovery of legal Treasures. In order to be taught by the Buddha and reach the law, it dances to the bands such as Hyanghwagae, Unsimge, Samjeogui, and Ogongyang, or to play with accompaniment such as hojeok, gong, or Samhyeon Yukgak.

K-History (7)

  • 1962.12.20
    designated date of national treasure
    The tombstone of King Taejong Muyeol in Gyeongju is the tombstone of King Taejong Muyeol, the 29th king of Silla, which was built in the mid 7th century in Seorak-dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-do. It is also abbreviated as the Royal Tomb of King Muyeol.

    The stele, which was erected during the Unified Silla Period, was shaped like a turtle, and the headstone on the stele was carved with a dragon. The tombstone of King Taejong Muyeol was the first example of this style.

    On December 20, 1962, it was designated as National Treasure No. 25 of the Republic of Korea.
  • 1962.12.20
    designated date of national treasure
    The construction of Seokguram Grotto was begun in 751 under the leadership of Prime Minister Kim Dae-seong during the reign of King Gyeongdeok of the Silla Dynasty, and was completed in 774 (the 10th year of King Hyegong’s reign), whereupon it was given its original name of Seokbulsa Temple.
    Buddhist art reached its peak during King Gyeongdeok’s reign, which spanned the middle period of the Silla Period, Besides Seokguram Grotto, many other cultural Treasures were built during this period, including Bulguksa Temple, Dabotap Pagoda, the Three-story Stone Pagoda of Bulguksa Temple, and the Bell of Hwangnyongsa Temple.
    The artificial stone grotto was built halfway down Tohamsan Mountain with pieces of white granite. The principal statue of Sakyamuni Buddha was placed at the center of the grotto, and forty statues of various bodhisattvas, Buddha’s disciples, and guardian kings were carved on the surrounding walls, though only thirty-eight of them remain. The rectangular front chamber of the grotto is connected to the round main chamber by a corridor. The exquisite ceiling of the main chamber was made with more than 360 flat stones. The architectural technique used to build this grotto is unprecedented in its excellence. There are statues of four guardian deities on both the left and right sides of the front chamber, which functions as the entrance to the main chamber. Carved on both sides of the entrance to the corridor is a statue of the Vajra Guardians, while the narrow corridor is decorated with the Four Guardian Kings carved in pairs. There is an octagonal stone column on both sides of the entrance to the round main chamber. The Principal Buddha is placed slightly off center toward the back of the main chamber. From the entrance, the walls of the chamber are filled with the images of two devas, two bodhisattvas, and ten arhats. Standing behind the Principal Buddha is a statue of the Eleven-faced Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva, perhaps the most exquisitely carved statue found inside this grotto.
    Every single sculpture contained in the grotto may be considered a masterpiece of East Asian Buddhist art. The list of masterpieces includes the principal image of Buddha, which was created with mature carving skills; the Eleven-faced Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva with its magnificently carved face and body; statues of valiant warriors and the majestic Four Guardian Kings; and the supple graceful statues of various bodhisattvas and arhats, each of which displays a distinctive individuality. In particular, the serene appearance of the Principal Buddha enshrined in the main chamber deepens the mystical atmosphere. The extremely natural appearance of the Principal Buddha seems to present to all living people the ideal model of a man harboring a profound and sublime mind deep within him and easily pass to them his everlasting mercy. Seokguram Grotto is a masterpiece of the golden age of Buddhist art in Silla. What makes it stand out all the more is its perfect combination of architecture, mathematics, geometry, religion, and art. Seokguram Grotto has long been preserved as National Treasure No. 24, and was jointly registered as a UNESCO World Heritage in December 1995 along with Bulguksa Temple.
  • 1962.12.20
    designated date of national treasure
    It was also called Namdaemun because it was located in the south of the main gate of Hanyangdoseong during the Joseon Dynasty. It was built in 1396 (the 7th year of King Taejo's reign) and was the oldest wooden building in Seoul.

    The building was rebuilt in 1448 (the 30th year of King Sejong's reign), and it was discovered that there was a big construction in the 10th year of King Seongjong's reign (1479) during the dismantling and repair of the building between 1961 and 1963.

    Later, on February 10, 2008, the fire at Sungnyemun destroyed the roof of the second floor of the pavilion and partially destroyed the roof of the first floor. After five years and two months of restoration work, it was completed on May 4, 2013 and opened to the public.

    This gate is a two-story building with a two-story square measuring 5 bays in front space and 2 bays in side space, with a rainbow-shaped gate in the middle of the stone pillars. The roof has a trapezoidal shape when viewed from the front, which is called the Woojingak roof. The multi-layered structure, which is decorated on the upper part of the pillars to support the eaves of the roof, is not only on top of the pillars but also between the pillars, and the composition is not too severe and is well-organized, showing the characteristics of the early Joseon Dynasty.

    It is said that Yangnyeongdaegun wrote the Hyeonpan, which reads "Sungnyemun," in the book "Jibong Yuseol." It is the oldest wooden structure in Seoul that shows the exact date of construction.

    ᄋ Sungnyemun's fire-fighting fire(2008.2.10)

    - The 2008 Sungnyemun arson attack was a case in which the Sungnyemun building was burnt down from February 10 to February 11, 2008. The fire broke out around 8:40 p.m. on February 10, 2008, and the second floor of Sungnyemun collapsed around 0:40 a.m. on February 11, 2008, followed by a fire on the first floor, damaging buildings except stone pillars at 1:55 a.m., five hours after the fire.

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